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A N 


O N 


Inanlmatum eji omne quod impulfu agitur 
externa : quod autem Anima eft, id Motu 
cietur interiore et fuo, 

Cic. Som. Scip. 


Printed by S. Powell, 

For J. P. Droz, in Dame-ftreef, over-againft 
George'^- lane. MDCCL. 


T O 







AS I am a Clergyman of the 
eftablifhed Church, and have 
for fome Years been poffefled 
of an Ecclefiaftical Preferment, in* 
to which, before I could be admit- 

A z ted, 


ted, I was obliged to fubfcribe the 
four firfl: Canons, which include 
my Afient to the Articles of our 
Religion, and alfo to declare pub- 
licly my unfeigned Afleut and Con- 
fent to all and every thing, contai- 
ned in The Book of Cojiunon-Prayer : 
And, as I have not been fo much 
employed about my temporal Af- 
fairs, but that I have found Leifure 
to apply fome Time to my Books, 
and to think as well as read ; I 
find that I do not now agree ex- 
actly in Sentiment, either with my 
former Opinions, or with thofe Per- 
fons who drew up the Articles of 
our Religion, or with the Compi- 
lers of cur Liturgy, and, in parti- 
cular, with the Athaiiaftan Creed : 
And therefore I have laboured un- 


der fome Difficulties, how to dired: 
myfelf under thefe Circumftances. 

There was a Sermon preached 
not many Years ago by Dodor Co- 
7tybear^ before the Univerlity of 
Oxford^ which feems to have been 
approved of by them ; and which 
hath iince been reprinted in Ire- 
landj wherein he afferts that every 
one who fubfcribes the Articles oi 
Religion, does thereby engage, not 
only not to difpute or contradid: 
them ; but that his Subfcription 
amounts to an Approbation of, and 
an Affent to the Truth of the Doc- 
trine therein contained, in the very 
Senfe which the Compilers thereof 
are fuppofed to have underftood 
them : That they are not to be con- 



fidered as Articles of Peace, but of 
Do(5trine, as the very Title denotes, 
whicK is, For the avoiding Diver- 
Jtties of OpijtionSy and for eftahlifh- 
ing Co7ife7it touching true Religion, 
Whereas I apprehend any Attempt 
tov/ards avoiding Diverfity of Opi- 
nions, not only to be an ufelefs, but 
alfo an impradicable Scheme ; fince 
I do not only doubt whether the 
Compilers of the Articles, but even 
whether any two thinking Men ever 
agreed exa(9:ly in their Opinion, not 
only with regard to all the Articles, 
but even with regard to any one of 
them ; fo that if they were to give 
their own Interpretation of them, 
there would be found as many diffe- 
rent Sentiments as there were In- 
terpreters : The Difference indeed 



would not always be great ; but 
ftill there would be a Difference. 

I faid thinking Men^ for, as to 
the unthinking Herd, whatever was 
the Creed of their Father, or Tu- 
tor, that will be theirs, from their 
Infancy, to their Lives End ; and 
accordingly, whatever Country you 
go into, let the Religion be what 
it will, the unthinking Part there- 
of are always the reputed Ortho- 

An Uniformity of Profeffton may 
indeed be both practicable and ufe- 
fuil ; and feems in fome Degree to 
be neceffary, not only for the Pre- 
fervation of Peace, but alfo for the 
general Good and Welfare of So- 
ciety : 


ciety : Since I do not conceive how 
any Society or Commonwealth can 
fubfift, unlefs fome Form of Reli- 
gion or other be eftablifhed therein ; 
as well with regard to Points of 
Dodrine as Difcipline ; which how- 
ever ought to be as plain, few, and 
fundamental as polTible. And as no 
eftablifhed Form of Relio-ion can 
fubfift, unlefs that Form be pub- 
licly made known, and the Tea- 
chers thereof are laid under fome 
Obligation, either by Subfcription, 
or otherwife, of complying with 
that Form, and of not preaching, 
or publicly teaching any Dod:rine 
contrary thereto ; fo I own I do 
not fee any Manner of Impropriety 
in the legiflative Power of any So- 
ciety infifting upon fuch a Kind of 



Subfcription, as is only required to 
be made for Peace-fake, and the 
Prefervation of the outward Forms 
of Society : Since a Man under 
thefe Circumflances may, for pru- 
dential Reafons, honeflly fubfcribe 
and fubmit to the Ufe of one efta- 
bliflied Form, though he, in his own 
private Opinion, may think ano- 
ther to be better \ provided that 
he is not obliged to fubfcribe any 
thing finful ; or fo diametrically 
oppofite to Truth, as that he can- 
not poffibly put any other Con- 
ftrudion upon it. 

The firft Subfcription, that I 
kaow of, was fet on Foot at the 
Council of Nice^ when the famous 
Conteft about the Trinity was de- 

a ter mined 


termined in Favour of the confub- 
Jiantial Dodirine, by a Majority of 
near twenty to one : To which the 
Emperor required all the Bifhops 
then prefent to fubfcribe. But then 
he allowed every one to put their 
ov/n Senfe upon the Word confub- 
fiaittial^ and not the Senfe that was 
intended by the Compilers of the 
Creed : And accordingly, Eufebius 
Bifhop of Ccefarea^ though he at 
firft refufed fubfcribing, yet when 
he was allowed to interpret the 
Word confub jiantial^ as meaning 
only, that the So?j was not of the 
fa77ie Sub fiance with the Creatures 
that were made by him • he then 
fubfcribed it, and fo, in a little 
Time after, did Arius. 



Peace was what the Emperor 
wanted, and therefore he was con- 
tent with Peace : But from the 
Time that Power was put into the 
Hands of the Church of Rcms^ im- 
pHcit Faith and Obedience to her 
infalKble Determinations, being what 
fhe required ; unlefs Subfcriptions 
were then to be underftood as made 
according to the Senfe of the Com- 
pilers of the Articles, the Recu- 
fants were anathem.atifed, and Fire 
and Faggot was the Word. 

But as I apprehend that the 
Church of Irela?id doth not fet up 
for Infallibility, I do not think that 
fhe requireth any other Kind of 
Subfcription than fuch as is necef- 
a 2 fary 


fary for Peace and Quietnefs : And 
therefore I am now not much dif- 
turbed upon this Head. I likewife 
find by the Words of the Ad of 
Parliament, which enjoins the De- 
claration of our Affent and Con- 
fent to all Things contained in The 
Book of Common-Prayer^ that the 
Purport and Intent of the Ad is 
that this Declaration of Affent 
fliould be only to the Ufe of thofe 
Things which are contained in the 
faid Book, which is very different 
from affenting to the Things them- 
felves : And therefore 1 am prettv 
eafy alfo with regard to this. 

How thefe Words, to the Ufe of 
came to be omitted out of the ex- 
prefs Form of Words that are or- 


dered to be read in Church for a 
legal Qualification, I cannot fay^ 
nor whether they were omitted out 
of Negled, or by Defign : but I 
own it feems to me, when 1 confi- 
der the Humour of the Times when 
that Ad: was made, that it was 
done with Defign ; as a Snare, to 
oblige poor (i) confcientious Men, 
who did not read the A3: of Par- 
liament at length, to give up their 
Livings, rather than declare their 
unfeigned Affent and Confent to 
all and every thing contained in Tie 
Book of Common- Praj'er, For it is 
to be obi'erved, that this Condition 
was not required by the y4cl of 

(i) And accordingly, there were 1800 Per- 
fons that were adually deprived of their Livings, 
rather than lubmit to the Terms prefcribed. 



Uniformity^ as publiflied in the 
Time of Queen Elizabeth^ but 
was an Addition made thereto, af- 
ter the Reftoration of King Charles 
the Second, when the Nation was, 
as it were, mad with the Joy of 
havino; recovered its ancient Confti- 
tution both in Church and State : 
The httle Oath therefore wherein 
it was declared, that it is 72ot law^ 
fuly upon a7iy Pretence what/oever^ 
to take Arras agai?ijl the King^ was 
at the fame time inferred into the 
ASi of Uniformity, Which Part 
of that hdi hath been fmce repea- 
led ; and indeed I cannot but j(in- 
cerely wifh, that the other Addi- 
tion, which was made at the fame 
time, was fo far redified, that the 
Words of the Declaration fliould 



be made to correfpond with the 
Defign of the Ad:, which mani- 
feftly was, to require the Declara- 
tion of Affent and Confent only to 
the Ufe of all and every thing con- 
tained in The Book of Commoi^-Pray- 
er. Becaufe I think that that folemn 
Declaration which a Clergyman is 
obliged to make in the Prefence of 
God and his Congregation, when 
he is going to take upon himfelf the 
Care of their Souls, ought to be 
lirnple, pofitive, plain ; free from 
all Ambiguity or Doubtfulnefs ; 
and (hould be exprefled in fuch a 
Manner, as that it cannot be mif- 
underftood, either by him, or by 
the Congregation ; but that he may 
fafely and honeftly make it, accor- 
ding to that plain a7id ordinary 



Senfe of the TVords^ in which they 
would commonly be underjlood by all 
Mankind, without any Evajion^ 
Equivocation^ or mental Eeferva- 
tion whatfoever ; that is, without 
any latent Reference to the Inten- 
tion of the Ad, which is not ex- 
preffed in the very Words of the 

And indeed I am the more defi- 
rous of this, becaufe I know for a 
Certainty, that fome of the moft 
learned and confcientious Perfons 
among the Diffenters, have made 
the Form of our Declaration of un- 
feigned Affent and Confent to all 
and every thing contained in The 
Book of Commoji-Prayerj an Ob- 



jedion, if not the principal one, 
againft coming into our Church. 

As alfo becaufe fome of our own 
Brethren, who confider Subfcrip- 
tions in the fame Light with the 
bigot ted Members of the Church 
of Rome^ and probably never read, 
or never duly confidered the AB of 
Uniformity^ have taken Occafion, 
from that Form of Declaration of 
Affent, to brand thofe, who pre- 
fume to doubt, or differ from them 
in any of their imaginary orthodox 
Notions, with the Imputation of 
Perjury, or, at leaft, of Hypocri- 

But though we fhould fuppofe 

this was done, and that Subfcrip- 

b tions 


tions were declared to be only re- 
quired for Peace-fake ; yet there is 
ftill a Dijfficulty which remains be- 
hind, with regard to thofe who 
do not ,approve of all the Articles 
of the eftablifhed Religion, or of 
every thing in the Liturgy ; becaufe 
it is natural for them to defire that 
thofe Things, which they take to 
be Errors fhould be amended ; and 
yet it is found by Experience, that 
whoever attempts to find Fault with 
the Canons or the Articles of Reli- 
gion, or the eftablifhed Form of 
Liturgy, becomes immediately a 
Difturber of the Peace of the 
Church, as he is fure, at leaft, to 
be loaded with the opprobrious 
Name of Schtfmatk^ or Heretic^ 
which ever fmce the Days of Po- 



pery^ are Sounds that occafion won- 
drous Horror in the Ears of the 

Whoever confiders the Difficul- 
ties which attend the Reformation 
of ReHgion in general, and in par- 
ticular, the Difficulties which at- 
tended thefe Nations in their Re- 
formation from Popery^ ought to 
thank God that fo much was done 
at that Time as was done, rather 
than repine that more was not ef- 
feded. The Humour of the Times 
would not fuffer a more thorough 
Reformation ; thefe Nations ha- 
ving been fo- long accuftomed to a 
Kind of utter Darknefs, that their 
Eyes would not bear too much 
Light to be let in at once. 

b 2 Chriftianity 


Chriftianity was not eftablifliedj 
nor the Jewijh Religion thorough- 
ly reformed all on a Sudden. Af- 
ter St. Paul had been many Years 
a Preacher of the Gofpel, he com- 
plied with the jfewijh Ceremony of 
(2} Jljaving his Head in Cenchreay 
hecaufe he was under a Vow ; and 
of (3) purifying himfelf at the 
Temple of yerufalem^ rather than 
give Offence to the Jews. And the 
whole Council of Apoftles, when af- 
fembled at Jerufakm^ affented to en- 
join thofe (4) JewiJIj Profelytes, who 
from among the Gentiles^ were tur- 
ned unto God, to continue for fome 

(2) A£is xviii. i. 

(3) A5fs xxi. 24. 

(4) A^s XV. 19. XX. 29. 



time under a Prohibition from ea» 
ting Things ftrangled, and from 
Blood, which hath been long fmce 
difcontinued. And our Saviour him- 
felf was pleafed to declare, that he 
concealed many Truths, till the 
Difciples fhould be able to bear 
them, John xyi. 12. 

The prefent Conftitution of thefe 
Kingdoms, both in Church and 
State, is, in my fincere Opinion, 
the befl: in the known World ; but 
I will not fay, that it is not capable 
of being ftill further amended. 
What then is to be done ? For if 
the Church be not infallible any 
more than the State, why may not 
that be amended as well as the 
State ?' And why fhould we be 



more afraid of breaking the Peace 
of the Church than of the State ? 
The Peace of the one being full as 
neceflfary to be preferved as the 
Peace of the other. 

The Chrifttan Religion was, at 
its fir ft Propagation, called a (5) 
Herefy ; and therefore (t;) St. Paul^ 
in his Apology to Felix ^ faid, T'his 
I co7ifefs^ that after the Way which 
they call Heresy, fo worjhip I the 
God of my Fathers, Which De- 
nomination was continued to it, fo 
long as to the Time of Conjlan- 
tine the Great, who in his Epiftle 
to Chrefius Bifhop of Syracufe^ calls 

(5) A5ls xxviii. 22. 

(6) A^s xxiv. 5, 14. _ 



the Chrijlian Religion the (7) Ca* 
tholic Herefy : Which Letter was 
written after the Emperor had de- 
clared in Favour of Chrtjltanity, 

Kipidih according to Stephens^ fig- 
nifies, in general, the fame thing 
with the Latin Words SeBa and 
Dogma^ that is, a SeB or Opinion. 
And accordingly, he reckons up 
ten Seds or Herefies of the ancient 
Philofophers. But among the Ec- 
clefiaftical Writers, fays he, it fig- 
nifies an Opinion, or SeB that is 
C07ttrary to the orthodox Faith, 
But as the eftablifhed Religion of 
every Country is that which confti- 

(7) T^ aiffVtwj TBj K9^iK\Kh<i, Eufeb. Hilt. Eccl. 
lib. X. cap. ^, 



tates Orthodoxy^ according to the 
common Senfe of the Word ; hence 
it is, that they who diiFer and fe- 
parate therefrom are generally cal- 
led Hereticks ; and hence it comes 
to pafs, that a Perfon may be ef- 
teemed as very orthodox in Eng- 
land or Ireland^ who would be 
deemed as an Heretic at Rome^ or 
in other Countries. And for the 
fame Reafon it was, that the Chrif- 
tians were at firft called Hereticks 
in yiidcea^ becaufe they feparated 
from the Jewijh^ which was the 
eftabliflied Religion of the Coun- 
try ; and were alfo called Heretics 
in RomCy becaufe they refufed joi- 
ning with the Heathen^ which was 
the then eftabliflied Religion there. 



It is therefore polTible that an 
Heretic may be in the right ; ac- 
cording to the original Senfe of the 
Word. It is alfo pofTible that he 
may be in the wrong. And there- 
fore St, Peter fays, (8) "There are 
falfe Teachers among yoUy who pri- 
vily Jhall bring in damnable Here- 
fieSy even denying the Lord that 
bought them. And St. Paul fays, 
(9) / hear there are Schifms among 
you ; and I partly believe it : For 


they which are approved may be 
made manifefl. Now there is no 
other Neceffity for Herefies being 
among them but this ; that God 

(8) 2 Pet. ii. I. 

(9) I Cor. xi. 18, 19. 

c did 


did not frame human Nature in 
fiich a Manner as to neceffitate all 
Men to be of one Mind ; but ha- 
ving made Mankind to be free 
Agents, he left them in the Hand 
of their ow7t Council^ to dhufe their 
own Opinions for themfelves ; ac- 
cording to the Merit or Demerit of 
which Choice, they will be proper 
Subjects for Rewards or Punifh- 
ments. And therefore, while this 
Conftitution of human Nature re- 
mains, there 7niiji be Schifms, Di- 
vifions, Herefies, or a Diverfity of 
Sects among them. And as all Man- 
kind think themfelves to be in the 
Right, fo they naturally conclude 
all thofe who differ from them to 
be in the Wrong ; and hence it 
comes to pafs, that the Word He-- 



ret'tc is generally ufed in a bad Senfe, 
though becaufe a Perfon is an Here- 
tic, or is of a different Sect from the 
eftablifhed ReUgion, it does by no 
Means follow, that therefore he muft 
be in the Wrong. If the Perfons 
from whom he differs fhould be in- 
fallible, as it is allowed the Apof- 
tles were, then indeed it would fol- 
low, of Confequence, that the He- 
retic or Separatift muft be in an 
Error. And if, after Inftru6lion 
and Admonition, he will not amend, 
it is then fit, he fhould be ejected, 
or excommunicated out of the So- 
pety of the Faithful, left his Ex- 
emption from Punifliment fhould 
give Encouragement to the Seduc- 
tion of others ; for though it can- 
not be fuppofed that his Excommu- 
c I nication 


nication will amend himfelf, yet it 
may contribute to fave other Per- 

And hence it is, that St. Paul^ 
in his Advice to Titus ^ fays, A 
Man that is an Heretic, after the 
fir ft and fecG72d Admonition, rejeEi % 
knowi7ig that he that is fuch, is fub^- 
verted, and f?meth, being co?idemned 
of hifufelf. Which Admonition 
and Rejection fhews the Crime of 
Herefy to confift in an Error of the 
Will, rather than of the Judg- 
ment ; for otherwife Titus would 
have been directed to inftrud fuch 
a Perfon, rather than to admonifh 
him. But as it is to be fuppofed 
that Information and Inftradion 
would be firft tried by Titus, even 



before the firft Admonition, there- 
fore it is the Perverfenefs of his 
Will, in ftill periifling in his SeA 
or Herefy after Admonition, that 
feems to be the Caufe and Founda- 
tion of his Excommunication : For, 
lays St. Paulj fuch a one is fub- 
verted from the Faith, and Jinneth^ 
by perfevering therein after Admo- 
nition ; and is felf- condemned j as 
having no Excufe of Ignorance to 
plead after his being admonifhed 
thereof : He may indeed not be 
felf'Condemned with regard to his 
Error, becaufe he may not be con- 
vinced that he is in an Error ; but 
may think himfelf to be in the 
right, when he is in the wrong : 
Whereas, with regard to his Here- 


fy, or Separation from the Church 
to which he belonged, he cannot 
be ignorant thereof, after Admoni- 
tion, for differing from the Senft 
of the Church ; and therefore if he 
perfijfts therein after being admo- 
nifhed, he muft be felf-co7idemnedy 
with regard to his Perfeverance in 
Oppofition to the Church, 

And as every legiilative Power is 
fo far infalHble, as it is the dernier 
Refort, and only Judge now left 
upon Earth, of what is right and 
wrong, within the Limits of it's 
own Jurifdiction ; therefore when 
any Form of Religion hath been 
once eftablifhed, they who feparate 
therefrom, or act in direct Oppo^ 
fijtion to it's Commands, are to be 



treated as if fuch legillative Power 
was infallible ; and if they will 
not fubmit, upon Admonition, are 
to be rejected, to prevent others 
from being feduced, and to pre- 
ferve the Peace of Society. 

By which Rejection, or Excom- 
munication, I do not mean an 
Exclufion from civil Rights, and 
the Protection of the Civil Magif- 
trate, but only from the outward and 
vifible Communion of the Church, 
and its faithful Members, and all 
the particular Benefits which pro- 
perly belong thereto, or may refult 
therefrom ; from which, as it is by 
their own Choice that they differ, 
in difobeying its Rules, or rejec- 
ting its Communion, it can be no 



Injuftice that they fhould be ex- 
cluded, if they ftill perlift in their 
Difobedience after Admonition. 

Since therefore it appears, that a 
Man's being of a wrong Opinion is 
not that which properly denomi- 
nates him an Heretic^ but rather 
his being of a different Opinion 
from the Majority ; one would 
be apt to wonder why that Word, 
in general, fhould have fo bad an 
Idea annexed to it • but that the 
Anfwer thereto is obvious, viz. 
That it arifes from our having too 
great a Fondnefs for ourfelves, and 
our own Opinions ; and too great 
an '\verfion to thofe who differ in 
Opinion from us. 



There is indeed no Reafon to be 
alligned in general, why Men fhould 
be more difpleafed with one ano- 
ther for being of different Opinions, 
than for their being of different 
Sizes, or for having a different per- 
fonal Appearance. And were it 
not that Experience convinces us 
of the Matter of Fad:, it would 
be hard to believe that Men's Paf- 
fions could carry them to that De- 
gree of Animofity againft each 
other, on Account of Opinions 
barely fpeculative, which we find 
pradifed in all Countries, and al- 
moft all Ages. 

I can very well conceiv^e why 
Men fhould contract an Averfion, 

d and 

xxxiv DE DIG At I ON. 

and an Hatred for one another^ 
about Opinions where their tempo- 
ral Interefts are concerned ; and do 
not wonder, when I read that (i) 
De7netrtus the Silverfmith raifed a 
Tumult againft Paul at Ephefus^ 
for faying, that they be no Gods 
vjhkh are made with Ha?tds^ be- 
caufe, by this bold AiTertion, as 
Demetrius acknowledged, this Craft 
was in Danger to be fet at nought, 
and ye hio-do^ Sirs^ laid he, that 
by this Craft we have our Wealth. 

But it is not fo eafy to account, 
why one Man fhould bear an ill 
Will to his Neighbour, or any of 
his Fellow- Creatures, for being of 

(i) A^s xix. 24. 

a different 


a different upinion from him in 
Matters barely ipeculative, in which 
the otner is no Way concerned, 
further than as he is a (2) Man, 
and a Lover of Mankind. In which 
Refped every Body ought to be fo 
far concerned for his Fellow-Crea- 
ture as to do all that lies in his 
Power to contribute to the Happi- 
nefs of each other ; but then this 
is to be done in a proper, kind, and 
friendly Manner : And, if that will 
not prevail, contrary Methods ought 
by no Means to be attempted ; fmce 
that Principle which directs us to 
ufe all Men well, can never vindi- 
cate us in ufing any Man ill. 


(2) Homo fumy humani nihil a me alienum 

d I If 


If one Man is a Ghrtjiian^ and 
another is a Jew^ Turk^ or Infidel 
of any Denomination, there can be 
no more Reafon for havino; a Dif- 
like upon that Account to each 
other, than becaufe they were not 
all born in the fame Country, or 
bred up under the fame Tutor, or 
do not all fpeak the fame Lan- 
guage ; fince ninety-nine in an 
hundred of thofe who are Chri- 
Jiians^ would probably have been 
Mahometans^ if they had been born 
in Turhey^ and would have imbi- 
bed their Religion, as they do their 
native Tongue, along with their 
Mother's Milk : And the fame may 
be faid of ^Jews or Mahometans^ 
that they would have been Chri- 



fi'ia7is^ if they had been born in a 
Chriftian Country, and of Chri-- 
Jiian Parents. 

If it pleafes the Almighty to 
endow one Man with a better Un- 
derftanding, or greater natural Abi- 
lities of any Kind, than his Neigh- 
bour, to appoint the Place of his 
Birth, where he has better Oppor- 
tunities of being informed in true 
Religion, or to produce him from 
fuch Parents as will take care that 
he is better educated in the Paths 
of Virtue ; thefe are Bleffings for 
which he ought to be thankful to 
his Creator j but are far from be- 
ing any Reafbn, why he fhould 
bear an ill Will to thofe Perfons, 
who have not received the fame 


xxxviii DEDICATION. 

Advantages from Providence ; or 
why he lliould not live in a kind 
and neighbourly Manner with them, 
though he thinks them in an Error 
with regard to their religious Prin- 

And yet Experience convinces 
us, that the Conduct of Mankind 
is quite otherwife ; which can be 
attributed to nothing but a vicious 
Pride in our Nature, which makes 
us not content with the Applaufe 
of our own Confcience, when we 
think ourfelves in the Right, un- 
lefs we have the Applaufe of others 
alfo : And renders us follicitous to 
gain Followers and Admirers, at 
^he fame Time that it gives us an 

Aver lion 


Averlion for every one that difFers 
in Opinion from us. 

Athanafius^ in Anfwer to this 
Queftion. no^-fj/ AsVslai "A/^ogo-is ; unda 
dicitur Hcerefis f Saith, Atto tb dipa^dt 

m 'iS'^ov, xoci Tela l^ccycoXa^eiy. Ao ellgen-^ 

do @^ frofequejido Sententtam fuam 
privatam. So that the conceiving 
of Error is not that which confti- 
tutes the Crime of Herefy, but the 
profecuting and perfevering in it, to 
the railing of a Party-j and exciting 
Follower Sy whence alfo the Word 
SeB is derived ; and for this Reafon 
it is that St. Paul reckons up He- 
rejies among fach (3) Works of the 
Flefli, as Hatred^ Variance^ Emula- 

(3) Gal V. 20, 21. 




tionSy Wrath^ Strife^ SeditionSy 
EnvyingSy Murders^ and fuch Itke^ 
as it is near of Kind to them, and 
may be the Foundation and Gaufe 
of them. 

What then is it the Duty of any 
Perfon to do, who is the profeffed 
Member of any eftablifhed Church, 
if he fees, or imagines he fees, any 
Errors, either in the Doctrine or 
Difciphne of that Church ? Muft 
he, for Fear of difturbing the Peace 
of the Church, and being deemed 
a Schifmatic, or Heretic, fit down 
quietly, and not endeavour to fet 
them to Rights ? Or, muft he fly 
off, and feparate immediately from 



As to the Firft, if Men were not 
to declare their Opinions, in fpight 
of Eftabhfliments either in Church 
or State, Truth would foon be ba- 
nifhed the Earth. Error puts on 
fo much a fairer Outfide, ornaments 
itfelf with fo many plaulible Ap- 
pearances, and comes loaded with 
fo many Bribes to tempt us from 
our Duty ; that if Truth did not 
fbmetimes fhew itfelf and exert its 
Abilities in its own Defence, the 
World would be foon over-run with 
Error, as an uncultivated Garden 
with Weeds. Of which the Expe- 
rience of Times paft is fufficient to 
convince us, by the Growth and 
Continuance of Errors in the Church 
of Ro7ney from the Time that the. 

e Bible 


Bible was fhut, and the Court of 
Inquiiition opened. 

And as to the Second, whoever 
he is who thinks he ought to fepa- 
rate from that Church wherein he 
fees fome Errors, if it will not im- 
mediately reform and amend them ; 
and thinks it his Duty to refufe joi- 
ning in Communion with any Set 
of Men, till he meets with a Con- 
ftitution, either in Church or State, 
that is abfolutely free from Errors ; 
fnch an one, I fear, is not fitted 
for this World, but muft live by 
himfelf, till he is conduded into a 
Society of Angels. 

In my Opinion therefore, the 
middle Courfe is that which he 



ought to purfue, which in this Af- 
fair, as well as moft others, is cer- 
tainly the beft. 

Let us confider how a Perfon in 
like Circumftances, with regard to 
the State, ought to conduct him- 
felf ; and this may perhaps deter- 
mine our Behaviour with regard to 
the other. For we generally talk 
more calmly, as well as more ra- 
tionally, concerning the Affairs of 
the State, than of the Church. 

Suppofe a Perfon fees any Errors 
in that Conftitution of Government 
under which he lives ; may he nor, 
ought he not to lay his Opinion 
before the Legiflative Powers of 
that Society, in order to procure 

e z aa 


an Amendment of it ? I think he 
ought. But then he ought at the 
fame Time, unlefs in Cafes of the 
utmofl: Neceffity, where the Vitals 
of the Conftitution are in Danger, 
not only not to defert the State, 
though the Amendment fhould not 
be made ; but alfo to avoid raifing 
Parties or FaEiions in the State, for 
the Support of his Opinion ; which 
in the Ecclefiaftical Stile, would be 
called Herejtes, 

But to this it is objedled, that 
here the Parallel will not hold, be- 
caufe Men's temporal Interefts will 
reftrain them from overturning the 
Eftablifhment of the State ; where- 
as too many would be very glad to 
have the Eftablifhment of the Church 


quite fet aiide. It may therefore 
be dangerous to begin with making 
Alterations or Amendments in the 
Church, left thofe Scaffoldings which 
are eredted for Repairs, fliould be 
made Ufe of to pull down the 
whole Fabric. 

With humble Submiffion how-, 
ever to thefe cautious Gentlemen, I 
am under lefs Apprehenlion for the 
Church than for the State : For, as 
to the Chrifiian Religion in general, 
we have the fure Word of Pro^ 
phecy, that the Gates of Hell flo all 
not prevail agamji it. And as to 
particular Eftablifhments, I fhould 
apprehend, that the freer they were 
from Errors, the more likely they 
would be to ftand. At leaft, I 



lliould think it would be right to 
run fome Rifque, and place fome 
Truft in the Providence of God, 
rather than let Errors of any Confe- 
quence remain. 

But, fay they again, Truth is 
not to befpoken at all Times. Which 
I will allow fo far, as to acknow- 
ledge, that Prudence and Temper 
is to be made Ufe of even in the 
Publication of Truth ; but not that 
Truth may be concealed for ever, 
under the Pretence, that the Publi- 
cation of it at prefent would be 
out of Seafon ; for if Error may 
be fafely eftablifhed, and Truth 
concealed, how can we vindicate 
all that Outcry that was made by 
Protejiants againft the Doftrine of 



Tranfiibjiantiation^ &c ? Since it 
is manifeft, that before the Refor- 
mation took Place, the fame Argu- 
ments were then made Ufe of againft 
any Innovations in Religion that 
are now. And all Alterations in 
the eftablifhed Form of Worfhip 
were then as much declaimed againfl 
by the Ecclefiaftics of thofe Days, 
as they can be at prefent. 

I am not againft joining the Wif- 
dom of the Serpent with the Inno- 
cence of the Dove : But I would 
not have the Wifdom of the Ser- 
pent without the Innocence of the 
Dove. Let us be as wife as pofli- 
ble in defending what is right in 
our Eftablifhment, but let us not 
€xert the fame Wifdom in defend- 


ing what is wrong. But, above all, 
let us, in the Name of God, take 
care, that our Foundations be clear, 
and that our Articles and Creeds 
are free from Error* 

The Author of thefe Papers, 
though he hath addrefied them to 
Your Grace, is very fenlible, that 
it IS not in Your Power, nor in that 
of all the Ecclefiaftics of the Land, 
to alter the eftablifhed Form of Wor- 
fhip • he knows, that the AEi of 
Uniforjnity^ upon which it depends, 
and of which our Litargy is a 
Part, was pafled into a Law, by 
the joint Confent of the thj*ee Ef- 
tates of the Realm ; and he trufts 
in God, that he never fhall fee the 
Church independent on the State. 



But, my Lord, though the Bi- 
fhops and Clergy, either in or out 
of Convocation, cannot redrefs, yet 
they may recommend ; the Author, 
however, cannot but remark, that he 
does not recoiled any Inftance in 
Hiftory, lince the Times of the 
Apoftles, w^here the Reformation 
of Religion in any material Points 
hath been brought about by the 
Influence of the Clergy in general ; 
the Bulk of them, who are always 
the leaft knowing, being moft te- 
nacious of old Opinions. The 
Pope indeed, every now and then, 
makes fome Reformation in the Ca- 
lendar of Saints, and ftrikes out a 
few antiquated Holy-days, in order 
to make Room for new Canoniza- 
f tions : 


tions : But if we are to take our 
Precedents from what hath hitherto 
pafled in the Reformation of any 
material Points in Religion, it muft 
be efFed:ed by a few leading Perfons 
among the Clergy, when fupported 
by the upper and more thinking 
Part of the Laity. 

And, as it hath pleafed God and 
His Majefty to call you to the Pri- 
macy of this Church, the Author 
cannot think of any Perfon more pro- 
per to addrefs himfelf to at prefent, 
than Your Grace ; as well on ac- 
count of Your perfonal Abilities, 
as of Your Intereft with thofe lea- 
ding Members of the Society, whe- 
ther Laymen or Clergy, who com- 



pofe the Legiflative Power of this 

And as he thinks this to be the 
mod proper and Chriftian Method 
of conveying his own Sentiments 
to the Powers that be j fo hath he 
alfo publiflied his Sentiments in the 
Garb of a metaphyfical Effay, to 
prevent their falling into the Hands 
of the lower Clafs of Readers, whofe 
Thoughts might be difturbed by an 
Enquiry into Subjects of this Na- 
ture ; till by gentle Degrees they 
come, by the Bleffing of God, to 
be made a Part of the eftablifhed 
Religion of the Country ; which 
will give them a proper Recom- 
mendation and Weight with thofe, 
k % wha 


who are not otherwife capable of 
judging of them. 

Not that he expefts, that every 
Thing, which he hath advanced 
in this E[fay^ is to be received by 
his Reader as an Article of Faith, 
but only that it may have its due 
Weight in his ferious Confidera- 
tions j for as he is defirous, that 
no human Conjedlures may be im- 
pofed upon him, as of equal Au- 
thority with Divine Revelation ; 
fo neither does he dcfire, that his 
Conjectures fliould be obtruded up- 
on others. 

The Author is thoroughly con- 
vinced, that Minifters of State will 
be very cautious, and with great 



Reafon, how they embroil them- 
felves with religious Difputes. But 
as he does not apprehend, that there 
is any Need of purfuing violent 
Methods, fo neither does he expedl 
that a thorough Reformation of 
every thing that may be amended, 
fhould be made all at once. He 
could wifh hov^ever, that fomething 
was done, to convince the World, 
that the Clergy of the Church of 
Ireland^ are not averfe to a proper 
Reformation of fuch Parts of her 
Public Service, as demand a more 
immediate Revifal ; fince, other- 
wife, they may give Offence by 
their Obftinacy, and feeming Infal- 
libility ; and if a Storm fhould 
arife, may run a Rifque of having 
that Tree torn up by the Roots, 



which might have been faved by a 
little pruning. 

As the Laws of the Land require 
Subfcriptions to be made to the 
Canons and Articles of our Reli- 
gion, only by Clergymen, Fellows 
of Colleges, Clerks, and School- 
Matters, fo thefe do not feem to 
need that immediate Redrefs, which 
thofe Parts of pur Worfhip require, 
in which the whole Community 
are expected to join. 

He thinks, that he need not in-s 
form Your Grace, that that Creed, 
which is commonly called the 
Athanafian Creed, hath of a long 
Time given Offence, and conti- 
nueth to give great Offence to 



many People. And indeed not 
without Reafon, if we confider it 
only in this Light, that the Sub- 
ject of a great Part of it, is a Theo- 
logico-Metaphyfical Difpute, which 
few, if any, of the Learned under- 
ftand ; but is undoubtedly above 
the Capacity of the Vulgar ; and 
yet, by being made a Part of our 
Public Service, every Body, as well 
low as high, is required to aflent 
to it. 

It is alfo now univerfally acknow- 
ledged among the Learned, that it 
was originally a fpurious Production, 
impofed upon the World under the 
Name of Athanafius^ till detefted 
by the Criticifms of the learned 
Vojpus* But, fuppofing it had been 
V. ' a genuine 


a genuine Piece, and had been un- 
doubtedly written by Athanaftus^ 
there can be no Reafon afUgned, why 
the Members of the Church of Ire^ 
land fhould be tied down to affent to 
the Compofitions of a private Perfon, 
who had no other Merit, which the 
Author can find, for being declared 
a Saint, but his bafe and low Sub- 
miilion to the Bifliop of Rome^ who 
had no legal Authority over him; 
and his infolent Behaviour to his 
lawful Prince, who undoubtedly had 
a Right to his Obedience, 

The Author does, by no Means, 
prefume to prefcribe to Your Grace; 
but he thinks himfelf in Duty obli- 
ged to recommend it to Your Con- 
fideration, whether the firft Step 



to be taken is not to try to get the 
Words in the Declaration of Afient 
and Confent made agreeable to the 
Intention of the Ad:, which was 
attempted in England^ A. D. 1663, 
about a Year after the laft Ad: of 
Uniformity, and paffed the Houfe 
of Lords, but was thrown out in 
the Houfe of Commons, by the 
then over-ruling Influence of the 
Duke of York^ and his Party, who 
did not let the Claufe propofed pafs 
even the Houfe of Lords without 
a Proteft. But, as we are now, 
thank God, free from any Appre- 
henfions of the prevailing Influence 
of fuch an Adminiftration, he hopes 
Your Grace will not decline ma- 
king the Attempt here, as he ap- 
prehends it will open a Freedom of 

g Con- 


Gonverfation among thofc Perfons, 
who have hitherto imagined them- 
felves to be Tongae-tied, by having 
pubhcly and abfolutely given their 
unfeigned Affent and Confent to all 
and every thing contained in 7"^^ 
Book of Co7nmon-Prayer. 

Which will be a proper, if not 
neceffary, Preparative to a gradual 
Reception of thofe further Emen-» 
dations of our Liturgy, which are 
propofed by fome anonymous Au- 
thors, in the fecond Edition of a 
Book lately publifhed, entitled, 
Free and candid Difquijit ions rela- 
ting to the Church of England. With 
whom, though the Author of thefe 
Papers does not agree in Opinion, 
concerning the Doflrine contained 



in the Athanafian Creed, and a few 
other Particulars : Yet he cannot 
avoid giving them their due Com- 
mendations, for the true Ch?'ijlia7i 
Spirit of Candour, Moderation, and 
Meeknefs, which breaths through 
their whole Performance. 

It is indeed prohibited by the 
AB of Uniformity J under fevere 
Penalties, for any Perfon to preachy 
declare^ or fpeak any thing to the 
Derogation or depraving The Book 
of Common- Pra3^er, or any Part 
thereof \ which, however, is by no 
Means inconiiftent with that Chri- 
fiia?t Liberty of a decent and free 
Ufe either of Converfation, or of 
the Prefs, concerning any Altera- 
tions or Amendments, which it may 

2 z be 


be right and prudent to have made 
therein. As he apprehends, that 
every Perfon is Uable to be punifh- 
ed by the Laws of the Land, who 
fhall preachy declare^ or /peak to 
the Derogatmi or depraving any 
Ac^ of Parhament, while it conti* 
nues in Force : And yet common 
Reafon, as well as common Cuftom, 
allows every Perfon to propofe Al- 
terations, and fpeak his Mind with 
regard to any Amendments, which 
fnay be made therein, provided it 
be done with common Decency, 
and a due Refped: to the Legifla- 
tive Powers of the Realm. 

And when this is complied with, 
he then looks upon it as the Duty 
of fuch as fee any Errors in the 



Conftitution, cither of Church or 
State, to lay their Sentiments be- 
fore the Powers that he^ in order 
to produce an Amendment ; which 
is the Motive that prevails with the 
Author of thefe Papers, to give 
Your Grace the Trouble of this 
Addrefs ; and to recommend to 
thofe in Authority the Conlidera- 
tion of the Advice given by the 
learned and religious Dr. Ham77iond^ 
in his Treatife, intitled, (4) A View 
of the new DireElory. Where, Spea- 
king in Favour of the Moderation 
ufed in our Church Catechifm, he 
faith, " If we would all keep ourfelves 
*' within that Moderation, and pro- 
" pofe no larger Catalogue of Cre- 
" denda to be believed by all than 
" the Apojlles Greedy as it is ex- 

(4) Sea. 40. 


"plained in our Catechifm^ Aoth. 
" propofe ; and lay the greater 
*' Weight upon the Gonlideration 
" and Performance of the Vow 
'* of Baptifm, and all the Com- 
" mands of God, as they are ex- 
" plained by Chrijl, — -I fhould be 
*' confident there would be lefs ha- 
*' ting and damning one another, 
*' (which is moft ordinarily for Opi- 
*' nions) more Piety and Charity^ 
*' and fo true Chrifiianity among 
" Chrijlians and Protejlants^ than 
" hath hitherto been met with.'* 
Which would be the moft proper 
Method that could be taken, to ren- 
der the Church of Ireland truly 
catholic ; not by driving Members 
out of its Pale^ on account of hu^ 
man Appointments and Determina- 


tions, in Imitation of the Church 
of Rome ; but by opening the Gates 
of its Communion as wide as was 
confiftent with the Gofpel oiChriJL 

The Preface to our Book of Com-^ 
mon- Prayer declares, that " the 
" particular Forms of divine Wor- 
" fhip, and the Rites and Ceremo- 
" nies appointed to be ufed there- 
" in,' being Things in their own 
*' Nature indifferent and alterable, 
*' and fo acknowledged, it is but 
" reafonable, that upon weighty 
" and important Coniiderations, 
*' according to the various Exigen- 
" cies of Times and Occafiions, fuch 
*^ Changes and Alterations may be 
" made therein, as to thofe that are 
" in Place and Authority fhould, 

^' from 


*' from Time to Time feem either 
neceffary or expedient.'* 


The Eyes of Mankind have been 
greatly opened, not only fince the 
Reformation, but even lince the 
Revolution. And that Liberty of 
Converfation and the Prefs, which 
the Inhabitants of thefe Kingdoms 
have ever fince been glorioufly in- 
dulged in, hath much promoted a 
Freedom of thinking, which was 
curbed and kept down, during the 
Dominion and Influence of Popery, 

And as at prefent the Genera- 
lity of thefe Nations feem more 
inclinable to liften to Reafon than 
formerly, the Author of thefe Pa- 
pers hath that Confidence, both 



in the Soundnefs of Your Grace's 
Judgment, and the Prudence of 
Your Condud:, that he makes no 
Doubt of Your doing every thing 
that is proper upon this Occafion, 
to remove thofe Rocks of Offence, 
which He in the Way of fo many 
well-meaninor Perfons. 

This Attempt of his, he thinks, 
however, for many Reafons, to be 
worth the making, becaufe, though 
it fhould not fucceed, yet he is fure 
of having that Satisfadlion from it, 
that he can fay, Liberavi Animam 
meam ; See ye to it : And that 
it furnifhes him with an Opportu- 
nity of profe/Tmg himfelf to be 
Your Grace's 
Moft devoted, And 
Moft obedient 

Humble Servant. 

• ^ _ 


A N 


O N 



I. ^ ' '1 1 H E Opinion of (i) Spinofa was, 
that there is no other Stibjiance 
in Nature but God. That 

Modes cannot fubfift, or be conceived. 

(i) Praeter Deum nulla datur, nee concipi poteft, Suh- 
fiantia, (per Propofit. 14;) hoc eft (per Defin.) Res qux ia 
fe eft, & per fe concipitur. Modi autem (per Defin. 5.) fine 
Subftanria, nee efle, nee concipi poffunt : Quare hi in fola 
d^fina natura eflc, & per ipfam folam concipi poffunt. 

Spin. oper. poft, Ethices, par. i. pag. 12.' 

B without 

2 An Essay on Spirit. 

without a Subftance. That there is nothing 
in Nature but Modes and Subftances : And 
that therefore every Thing muft be concei- 
ved as fubfifting in God. 

Which Opinion, with fome few Altera- 
tions, hath been embraced and cultivated, 
by P. Malbranche and Bifhop Berkeley. 

II. It m^y indeed be afTerted, that there 
is in Nature but onaSelf-exiftent Bemg, 
Subfiftence, or Subftance, which, by way 
of Eminence, may therefore be called, the 
Sub fiance ; or, figuratively and compara- 
tively fpeaking, the oyily Beings Subfi/ience, 
or Subjiance in Nature. For by thefe three 
Words, I would be underftood to mean one 
and the fame Thing. The Logicians de- 
fine Subfiantia to be Ens per fe fubfijlem 
^ fubjians accidentibus.. And I mean die 
fame Thing by a Being, Exijience, SubJUI- 
ance, or Subftance j that is, fomething ca- 
pable of fupporting Modes^ Accidents, Re- 
lations or Properties, which are only diffe- 
rent Words, to denote the various Marnier s 
;> or 

An Essay on Spirit. j, 

or Modes, by which Exiftent Beings can raife 
Ideas in our Minds, or, which is the fame 
Thing, can become knowable by us. Eve- 
ry Exiflence or Being, I therefore call a 
Siibjlance ; the Manner in which it makes 
an Impreflion on our Minds, I call a Mode ; 
and the Effedt or Impreflion, which is 
thereby made upon the Mind, I call an 

. Now as Nothing can have no Proper-- 
ties, wherever we perceive any Properties, 
we therefore reafonably conclude, that there 
muft be Something; that is, fome Exif-^ 
tence or other to fupport them. Hence the 
Maxim laid down by Spinofa, Modi fine 
Subftantia, nee eff'e, nee co7icipi pojj'unt : Or, 
as Sir Ifaac Newton exprelTeth it (2), Firtus 
fine Subjiafitia fubfifiere non poteji. 

And as God is the only Self-exiftent Be-' 
ijig, therefore he may, comparatively fpcak- 
ing, be faid to be the only Being in Nature. 

(2) t^evjt. Priac. Schol. gen. p. 485. -• 

B z And 

4: An Essay on Spirit. 

And accordingly, when Mofes enquired of 
God, by what Name he fhould make him 
known to the Children of Ifraely God faid, 
(3) ^hus jhalt thou fay to the Children of 
Ifrael, I am hath fint me unto you. That 
is, I that A M hath fent me unto you ; for io 
it fhould have been rendered. And there- 
fore,' itt the. iirft Part of the Verfe, where 
God faith unto MofeSy 1 am that I am. ; it 
fliould be rendered, I am that am, as it is 
by the Septuaginty lyca ^fju wv, that is, lam 
he that isy or that exiils, as if^ compara- 
tively fpeaking, there was no other Being 
or Exiftence but God. 

From which PafTage it probably was, 
that (4) Plato borrowed his Notion of the 
Name of God, v/hen he aflerted, that the 
Word gV/, e/if is folely applicable to the 
eternal Nature of God. And from him it 
alfo probably was, that the Word «, /. e^ 
thou art, was all that was written on the 

(3) Exod. iii. 14. 
^) Plato. Timams* 


An Essay 07i Spirit. 5, 

Door of tlie 'Delphic Temple : Upon wliich 
'Plutarch remarks, that this Word is foiely 
applicable to God, fmce that which truly hi 
nraft be feinpiternal, i 

All which is true, when we fpeak of 
God in a figurative and lefs- correft Man- 
iK^r, .only in Comparifon with the Creatures 
that have been made by him ;, between 
whom and their Creator there is no Pro- 
portion ; and which, when confldered in 
Comparifon with him, are as Nothing, 
Which is the View that God is to be confl- 
dered in, as fpoken of in the above-men- 
tioned PaOages, quoted out of the Books 
of McfeSy and the Theological Works of 

m. But when we fpeak c^ God and his 
Works, in a philofophical and more accu- 
rate Maimer, this will not hold. Since, as 
Des Cartes truly argues, / know that lexi/l, 
I cannot be deceived in this. If therefore 1 
exift, and that I am not God, then there 
is another Exigence in Nature befide God. 

I hope 

6. An Essay on Spirit. 

I hope I cannot be thought fo abfurd, or fo 
Impious, as to imagine, that there are more 
Gods than on^ ; or that I did not receive 
my Exiftence from the Will and Pow^r of 
God : The Confcloufhefs of my own Ex- 
igence necefTarliy leads me to a firft Caufe, 
which firft Caufe can only be one ; becaufe 
two firft Caufes are a Contradidlion ' in 
Terms. Every thing therefore that exifts, 
befide that Fir/i Caufe, which Way (bever' 
it is brought forth into Being, whether it- be 
hegotten^ emanated^ created, ox fpokenjorth^ 
It muft proceed from, and owe its Exiftence 
to the (5) Will, as well as Power of that firft 
Caufe. However, fure I am, that fince I 
do exift, 1 exift as a feparate and diftinft 
Exiftence from God ; though not indepen- 
dent of him. 

IV. And as my own Confcioufhefs con-^ 
vinces me of my own Exiftence, fb does. 

(5) Athanafius acknowledges it to be impious, to fay 
that God the Father was neceffitated to adt, even when he 
begat the Son : And allows alfo that neither Son nor Holy 
Spirit are the firft Caufe ; but the Father alone, and that th« 
Son and Holy Spirit were both cauftd. Atban, Vol. I. p. 
'^ J 2. Id. Vol. IL p. 442, 443. 


^n Essay on Spirit. 7 

the fame Faculty convince me, that this Exr 
iftence of mine is compofed of two very 
different Kinds of Exiftence, that is, of a 
thinking, a(5live, powerful, Exiftence ; and 
a dull, heavy, ina^ive, Exiftence. One of 
"which, to wit, the adlive, we will, for 
DifHn6lion fake, without entering into any 
further metaphyfical Difputes about Words, 
call the fpiritual Exiftence, Subfiftence, or 
Subflance ; and the other, 'utz, the inac- 
tive, we will call the material or bodily Ex- 
iftence ; and fometimes, for Brevity fake, 
we will call one Spirit, and the other Mat- 
ter or Body. 

V. Wherein the Nature or Effence, either 
of this material or this fpiritual Subftance 
does confifl, we are entirely ignorant ; for 
we know them only by the Effedls or the 
Influence, which fome of their Modes or 
Properties have upon our Minds. Thus, 
for Example, though we are capable of per- 
ceiving the Hardnefs, Colour, Figure, ^c^ 
of material Exiftences ; yet are we en- 
tirely ignorant, what it is that fupports thofc 

Properties ; 

8 An Essay on Spirit. 

Properties ; or wherein the Nature, Eflence, 
or Identity of Body does confift, when the 
Hardnefs, Figure, Colour, 6?c. is either 
altered or removed. In like Manner, we 
are equally ignorant of the Nature or Ef- 
fence of Spirit : We know indeed fome of 
the Properties thereof, fuch as, Perception, 
Thinking, Willing, Doubting, ^f. But we 
know not the Eflence of that fpiritual Be- 
ing within us, which perceives, thinks, 
wills, or doubts, G?r. 

VI. And though we know not wherein the 
Nature or Eflence, either of Body or Spirit 
does confifl: ; yet we find by Experience, 
that is, from the EfFedls which we feel from 
within, and from without ourfelves, that 
thefe two Kinds of Exiftences, of which 
the human Conftitution is compofed, have 
very different and incon{ifl:ent Properties : 
As for Example, that one has the Power 
of Motion in itfelf ; whereas the other can 
neither put itfelf into Motion, nor put a 
Stop to its own Motions, when once begun ; 


An Essay on Spirit. 9 

whence we reafonably conclude, that their 
Natures or EiTence are alfo different. 

Vn. We likewife find, from Experience, 
that there is a Difference between necef- 
fary and voluntary Motion ; and that fonie 
Agents have a Power of beginning, vary- 
ing, and putting a Stop to their own Mo- 
tions ad libitum ; while others invariably 
a6t after one regular, conftant, and uniform 
Method of proceeding, equally, and at all 
Times. And although it is not eafy to de- 
termine the Boundaries between thofe two 
Species of Beings, the Gradation from the 
one to the other, in fome Inflances, being fo 
exceedingly exquifite, as for Example, be- 
tween the vegetable and the animal Part of 
the Creation, as to render the Diilindlion 
hardly perceptible ; yet fure we are of the 
Matter of Fadl, 'uiz, that there are fome Be- 
ings, which are capable of voluntary Self-Mo- 
tion, whereas wx find, by Experience, that 
others are not : And fince we find, by re- 
peated Experiments, that that Kind of Ex- 
iftence, which we call Matter , is incapable 

C of 

TO An Eassy on Spirit. 

of producing any Kind of Motion, either 
voluntary or involuntary ; whenever we fee 
any thing moved, we may fairly conclude 
the firft Author, or Caufe of that Motion, 
to be what we call Spirit, 

VIII. It Is beyond the Reach of human 
Abilities to explain, how thefe two different 
Kinds of Exigence, the a6live and inactive, 
can have an Influence, or can poflibly affeiSt 
each other. When we fee a Stone defcend to 
the Ground, Ave are not much furprized, 
becaufe it is common ; but certain it is, 
that the original Caufe of that Motion 
muft be fome Spirit or other ; not only with 
Regard to the Determination of that Mo- 
tion, but alfo with Regard to the whole 
Momentum of it : Since, as Nothing can 
ciB ivhere it is not, that Power whereby 
any Body continues in JSlotion, is as much 
the Elfe6t of fome concomitant Spirit, as 
the Power which put it firfl: in Motion. 

• IX. That Power alfo, whereby Matter 
h enabled to reji-ft Motion, is as much the 


An Essay ^;j Spirit. 


Efl€(5l of Spirit, as that whereby it is ena- 
bled to continue in Motion, when once com- 
municated : Since Matter, as Matter, cannot 
pofTibly exert any a<5live Power of any Kind, 
either in beginning, continuing, or refifting of 
Motion. It may remain at Reft, by Virtue 
of its own Inactivity ; but if no active 
Power with-held it, a Mountain would be 
as eafily moved as a Mole-Hill. Becaufc 
that Refinance, Weight or Gravity is occa- 
fioned by nothing elfe but the Tendency of 
one Body towards another, impelled thereto 
by the attractive Force of fome Spirit. 
Which Tendency, or attractive Power, be- 
ing in Proportion to the (6) Quantity of 
Matter, makes the Difference of Weight or 
Gravity in Bodies. When therefore this 

(6) Hadenus Phaenomena Coelorum & Maris noftri per 
vim Gravitatis expofui, fed caufam Gravitatis nondum al- 
lignavi. Oritur utique haec Vis a Caufa aliqua quae pene- 
trat ad ufquc Centra Solis, &: Planetarum fine t'^irtutis Dimi- 
nutione ; qujeque agit non pro Quantitate Superficierum 
Particularum in quas agit, (ut folent Caufae mechanicse) fed 
pro Quantitate Materise folidae. 

Newt. Prhc* Schol. gen. p. 4S2. 

C 2 Tendency 

ti An EssAV 071 Spirit. 

Tendency is removed, there will be no 
Difference in their Gravity ; becaufe none of 
them, whether large or little, will have any 
at all : And of Confcquence, their Power 
of Refinance will be deftroycd. Which 
plainly proves, that Refiftance is fomething 
more than bare Inability, or a Want of 
Power, or a Negation of Spirit, as the Au- 
thor of (7) Stris afferts it only to be. 

X. And as there can be no Motion, 
without a Direction or. Determination being 
given to that Motion j hence it will follow, 
that every Being, capable of moving, either 
itfelfi or any thing elfe, mufl alfo be en- 
dowed with an IntelleB, or Underftanding, 
capable of directing that Motion. And as 
nothing can acl where it is not, hence alfo 
it is that Attra6tion, or Gravity, does not 
operate in Proportion to the Superficies of 
Bodies, but according to the Quantity of 
Matter ; becaufe every, even the leafi: Par- 
ticle, of adlive, or attra(5live Matter, mufl: 

([7) Sifts, Sefl. 290. 

A?i Essay on Spirit. 13 

be direBed'xn it's Motions by fome Spirit, 
united to that Matter, which may have jiift 
fuch a Quantity of Intellcdl communicated 
to it by its Creator, as will enable it to per- 
form thofe Fundlions, which are afTigned it 
by its Creator, in order to carry on the ge- 
neral Oeconomy of this Univerfe. 

Which Fundlions, all a6llve Beings, that 
are not endowed with a Freedom of Will, 
muft conftantly and regularly perform, when- 
ever there is an Opportunity given them of 
exertinjT thofe Faculties. And therefore, if 
they are appointed to perform the Opera- 
tions of AttraBion or Repuljioti, they muft, 
as neceffary Agents, always attraB or re- 
pel at certain Diftances, and according to 
certain and ftated Rules, prefcrlbed by their 
great Creator ; and will never vary in their 
Tendency towards this Body, or their Aver- 
fion from that ; but will for ever a(5l in one 
uniform Way of attra(5ling or repelling the 
fame Bodies, and in one regular, conftanr. 
Method of proceeding. From the Obfer- 
vance of which Operations, thofe Rules, 


14 An Essay on Spirit. 

which are called the Laws of Motion, are 
deduced by the Curious. 

. XI. All Nature, therefore, feems to be 
animated, or alive ; and this whole World 
to be replete with Spirits formed with diffe- 
rent Kinds and Degrees of Abilities, accor- 
ding to the various Ends and Ufes, for 
which they were deiigned by their Creator. 
The Difierence of whofe intelledlual Fa- 
culties may not only confift in the Difference 
of their original Formation as Spirits ; but 
alfo in the different .Inlets for Knowledge, 
through the Tegument of that Body to 
which they are united, and by which the 
Spirit within is capable .of receiving any 
Kind of Liformation, for the Improvement 
of it's own Underftanding. 

But if the Almighty is pleafed to add a 
Liberty of Will to this active Intellect, 
and create Spirits endowed with a Power 
of 'voluntary Motioiiy then it feems necefTary 
that Almighty God Ihould confer alfo upon 
fuch intelligent Spirits, fuch Faculties and 


An Essay 07i Spirit. 15 

Powers, as would enable them to be ca- 
pable of perceiving Pleafure or Pain ; fince 
nothing elfe, but a Scnfe of one or other of 
thefe, feems capable of determining the 
Wilho a(5l. For if the Senfation of Plea- 
fure or Pain be removed from the Will, there 
can be no Reafbn or Caufe for it to prefer 
one Motion to another, and of Confequence, 
no Dire(5lion or Determination. 

XII. And hence may be deduced the fol- 
lowing Obfervations. That to fuch a Be- 
ing every thing may be called Goody that 
giveth Pleafure ; and every thing Evil, that 
produceth Pain. The higheft Pleafure, 
which any Being is capable of enjoying, may 
be called its Happinefs j and the higheft 
Pain, Mifery. Now as the life of all Pain 
is to determine bur Motions, fo that when 
We feel or fear Pain, we may be thereby ex- 
cited to new Adlions, for our own Pre- 
fervation and Delight ; hence it appears, 
that Evil takes its Origbi from the Good- 
nefs of God, in which it will alfo be 
finally abforbed, when Pain fliall be no 


i6 An Essay Q7t Spirit. 

jnore. The Will cannot be at Liberty to 
chufe Evil as Evil. But as Pain may be 
be produ6tive of Pleafure, or Pleafure be 
producftive of Pain ; hence it comes to pafs, 
that free Agents, by being deceived, through 
their Ignorance, or Paihons, may chufe 
Evil, under the Appearance of Good ; and 
herein confifts human Freedom ; not in the 
Power of chufing Evil, but in the Power of 
chufmg what feems Good from among a 
Variety of Good, whether real or apparent : 
And herein lies the Difference between the 
Freedom of God and of Man ; that as fallible 
Men may chufe an apparent Good, in- 
ftead of a real one, they, by being liable 
to be deceived, are free, by that Means, 
to chufe Evil, inftead of Good : Whereas 
God, who cannot be deceived, is only free 
to chufe out of that infinite Variety of real 
Good, which his Will and his Wifdom may 
di(5late. — And laffly, That Virtue, Wif- 
dom, Prudence, ^c, in Mankind, may be con- 
(idered only as various Names, for the feve- 
ral Powers given to them, and the different 
Methods ufed by them in the Attainment of 


A?! Essay on Spirit. 17 

Happlncfs, and avoiding of Mifery. And 
hence alfo Self-Love may be looked upon, 
in Nature, as the Principle of all voluntary 
Adlion ; and the Foundation of all Mora- 

XIII. We find, by Experience, that there 
are fome voluntary felf-moving Beings here 
upon Earth, which have but one or two 
Methods of furnifhiiig their Minds with the 
Senfe of Pleafure, or of Pain ; others have 
three ; others four ; others five ; which 
are commonly known by the Name of Sen- 
fes ; to which rational Beings have one 
more added, which is that of inward Re- 
fledtion. And therefore, the Author of 
the Book of Eccle/iajihus, (peaking of the 
Formation of Mankind, fays (8), T'hey re- 
ceived the Ufe of the Jive Operations of the 
Lordj a?2d i?! the fixth Place he imparted to 
them JJnderjianding. 

XIV. But, let their Number be never fo 
various, they may, in general, be reduced 

(8) Ecduf. xvii. 5. 

3 to 

i8 J^n EssAV on Spirit. 

to thefe two. Firft, thofe Methods of Li- 
formation, which the Mhid of any Being, 
compofed of Body and Spirit, is capable oi 
being afFccled with, by the Intervention of 
the Senfes ; which furnifli the Mind with 
fuch Ideas, as may be called Ideas of Sen" 
fation, becaufe they are conveyed to the 
Mind through the Organs of Senfation. Or, 
fecondly, thofe Methods of Information, 
which the Spirit of any felf-moving Agent 
Is capable of being affc6led with, by its 
own reflex A6ts upon itfelf ; by the Means 
of which, the Mind is furnifhed with fuch 
Ideas, as may properly be called Ideas of 

XV. And indeed It Is in thefe reflex Adls 
of the human Spirit, that is, in the Power 
which the human Spirit is endowed with, 
firfl, In perceiving its own internal Opera- 
tions in thinking ; and, fecondly, in being 
able to turn back its perceptive Faculty, to 
Its paft Perceptions, that the chief Differ- 
ence feems to confift, between the Spirit 
of Man, and the Spirit of Brutes ; or be- 

A71 Essay oh Spirit. 19 

tween the rational, and that which is com- 
monly called the animal, Creation. 

XVI. By the Aflilkncc, however, of thefe 
two Faculties, that is, of Senfation and Re- 
jiexion, the Spirit of Man is flirnifhed with 
all thofe Ideas, which fill the human JNlind ; 
and fupply it with Objects of intelleBual, 
as well as fenfual, Pleafures. The latter of 
which it is, that flrikes us fooneft and 
ftrongeft ; as being moft neceffary for the 
immediate Ufe, and Prefervation of Life. 
And accordingly, we find, that the human 
Mind requires a Kind of ripening, before 
it is capable of making any reflex Acfl's up- 
on its own Operations, or having any Re- 
lifh for intelle(51:ual Pleafures. Upon which 
Account it mufl: be acknowledged to have 
been one great Advantage, which Adam 
had over all his Pofterity, that his Intellec- 
tual Faculties, came with him into the 
World, In their full Force ; by which 
Means, he was free from that Blafs, in Fa- 
vour of fenfual Pleafures, which all liis 
Offspring have, ever fince, ncceflarlly, la- 
D 2 bourc4 

20 An EaSSY 071 Sx^lRIT. 

boured under ; by an Habit of being in- 
dulged in fenfual Gratifications, from their 
Infancy, till they come to a Maturity of 
Judgment ; during which whole Time, the 
human Will hath no Relifh for any Plea- 
fures, but fuch as enter in by the Senfcs. 

XVII. The Spirit of Man, therefore, 
being furniflied with Ideas by the Opera- 
tion of the two Faculties of Seiifation and 
"Refexion ; when the Mind begins to ope- 
rate a -new, its Operations are called by 
different Names, according to the different 
Ufe it makes of thofe Ideas. For when 
the Spirit retains any Ideas in View, and 
collates, or compares, them together, this 
A6t of the Spirit is called T^hinkhig, The 
Continuation of which A(5l is called Atten^ 
tion. When it depofits its Ideas In the 
Store-Houfc, or Trcafury, of the Mind, 
for future Recolledlion, and produces them 
back, upon Occafion, in the fame Manner 
as they were depofitcd ; this A(5t is called 
Memory : But when it varies, alters, and 
compounds them, fo that they are not the 


/I?t Essay on Spirit. 21 

fame, as when depofited ; this A6t Is called 

XVIII. When the Spirit, by collating 
and comparing Ideas together, finds out the 
Agreement, or Difagreement, of thofe Ideas ; 
this Operation produccth Knoijoledgey and is, 
l)y the Logicians, called 'Judgment : But 
when the Spirit is miftakcn in this Opera- 
tion, and imagines Ideas to have an Agree- 
ment, which have no Agreement, and, 1;/- 
ce verfa, this Operation produceth Error, 

XIX. When this Agreement, or Difa- 
greement, of Ideas, ftrikes the Mind at 
once, without the Intervention of any third 
Idea, to prove their Agreement, or Difa- 
greement with one another ; this is intuit 
tive Knowledge : Which is fo called, from 
its Refemblance to the Information, v/hich 
^he Mind receives by the Senfation of Sight ; 
becaufe it perceives thofe Kinds of Truth, 
as the Eye does Light, only by being direc- 
ted to them : The Objects, of which are 
thofe Propofitions, that are called felj-evi- 


21 An Essay on Spirit. 

dent truths : Such as, that two and two 
make four ; that the Whole is greater than 
a Part ; that Happmefs is preferable to Mi- 
fery, ^c ; which the Mind cannot but af- 
fent to, as foon as it is made to underftand 
the Meaning of thofe Terms, and which 
can no more be proved, or demonftrated, 
than {imple Ideas can be defined ; as being 
themfelves the Foundation of all Knowledge 
and Demonftratlon. 

XX. But when the Mind is employed in 
a more complicated Operation, that is, in 
comparing together thofe Kelatiom^ or this 
Knowledge which we have acquired of the 
Agreement, or Difagreement of our Ideas ; 
or, which is the fame thing, v^hen the Mind, 
by comparing the Propofitions, which re- 
fult from the Agreement, or Difagreement, 
of our Ideas, from thence deduces certain 
Conclujions -, this Operation of the Spirit, is 
called reajoning. 


An Essay o?i Spirit. 23 

The Neceflity and Laborloufnefs of 
which Operation, in order to arrive at 
Truth, fhews the Imperfedlion of human 
Nature ; fince we find, by Experience, 
that there is but a very fmall Part of Know- 
ledge, which is fo felf-evident to us, as to be 
intuitive. Whereas Beings of a fuperior Na- 
ture, have, probably, their intuitive Know- 
ledge enlarged, in Proportion to the Excel- 
lency of their Natures : By which Means, 
thofe Degrees of Knowledge, which hu- 
man Beings are groping after, by long and 
tedious Deduclions of Reafon, are open, 
at once, to the Eyes of their Underftanding, 
and ftrike them, at once, with an intuitive 
View ; which is always the more extenfive, 
in Proportion to the Excellency of their 

XXI. And hence it is, that (9) Vlato^ 
fpeaking of human Abilities, in the In- 
veftigation of Truth, calls it, beholding 

(9) Plata in Phado. 


i4 ^^ Essay on Spirit; 

"Xhing^ in the Glafs of Reafon : Which he 
explains, by faying, That as they who con- 
template an Eclipfe of the Sun, lofe the 
Sight of it, unlefs they are fo careful as to 
view it's Reflexion in Water, or to look at 
it through fome Medium, fuch as thick 
Glafs ; fo the Eye of an human Spirit is too 
weak to find out Truth, unlefs it looks at 
it through the Medium of Reafon ; which 
St. Paul alfo calls (i), feei?tg through a 
Glafs darkly. 

XXn. We do indeed fee through a Glafs 
darkly, by the Means of this Tegument of 
Flefh ; this earthly Tabernacle, that en- 
compafifeth our Spirit : Since it is manifefl:, 
that the intelligent Spirit within Man is, in 
itfclf, endowed with Faculties, greatly fu- 
perior to thofe Powers it exercifeth in the 
human Underftanding ; and performs many 
Operations within us, and upon us, that 
are not only above our Power to diredt, but 
above our Underftanding to comprehend, 

(l) I Cor. xiii. 12. 


An Essay on Spirit. ij 

That Power, wliich is conftantly working 
within us, to form and preferve the regular 
Difpofition of our bodily Organs, and to 
change the Food which we eat, into Blood, 
into Flefh, and into Bones ; and which, ac- 
cording to the Naturalifts, is faid always to 
work moft powerfully, when the human 
Underftanding is afleep, is manifeftly above 
our Compreheniion. 

XXIII. It is a common Obfervation, that 
when the Belly is full, the Bones would be 
at Reft ; which feems entirely owing to this, 
that the Spirit, being unmolefted w Ith hu- 
man Cogitations, and its Attendance upon 
our Will, may be more at Leifure to purfue 
thofe Operations, which are immediately 
neceflary towards our Prefervation. For 
that it is the fame wife Agent, which ope- 
rates in the Digeftion of our Food, and 
that enables us to put in Execution the 
Directions of our Will, appears from hence, 
that when we have a Mind to move a Fin- 
ger, or a Leg, that Part of the human Un- 
derftanding, which is under our Diredion, 

E is 

i2k& An Eassy on Spirit. 

IS capable of doing no more than the Power 
of willing it ; but how to perform this Ac- 
tion, it is as ignorant of as the Beaft in 
the Field. 

XXIV. Which Operation of the Spirit. 
IS that which is known by the Name of In- 
flincl^ and goes through the whole Crea- 
tion. It is by InJiinB that the miniiteft 
Particles of Matter attradl or repel each 
other : It is by InftinSi that the Flower of 
the Field, which out-does Solomon in all his 
Glory, is direcSled in throwing forth its 
Leaves and Its Flowers, and forming its 
Fruit in due Seafon : It is by InftinB that 
the Birds of the Air build their Nefts ; and 
the Bcafts of the Field provide for them- 
felves and their Young, with a Sagacity fu- 
perior to the Directions of human Wifdom. 

XXV. Whether the Spirits of all created 
Beings, or even of all Beings of the fame 
Species, are equally perfect, is a Queftlon 
not very eafy to determine ; becaufe, though 
^ve fmd, by Experience, a vafl Difference, 


A7t Essay on Spirit. 27 

between the Underftandlngs of Men, not 
only with regard to their improved, but al- 
fo their natural. Abilities ; yet this may 
arife, not from any Difference between the 
Spirits of Men, but from the different For- 
mation of their bodily Organs ; which may 
have that Influence on their Spirit, as fufE- 
ciently to account for the Difference of their 
Underftandings : Since we frequently fee 
bodily Diftempers, fuch as Frenzies and Fe- 
vers, make fuch an Alteration in the Un • 
derftanding, as to reduce Men, at other 
Times, of good and fenfible Difpofitions, 
at leaft, to the Level, with Madmen and 

XXVI. And therefore we cannot be po^ 
fitive, but that all created Spirits, may only 
differ, according to the different Combina- 
tions of that material Syflem, with which 
they are circumfcribed, and in which they 
are enclofed, by the great Author of Na- 
ture. For, as Extenfion feems to be a Pro- 
perty peculiar to material Subilance, it may 
be, that all created Spirits, do not only owe 

E 2 their 

28 An Essay on Spirit. 

their Shape, and the Limits of their Exif- 
tence, to Matter, but alfo the Extent of 
thofe Faculties, which they are permitted to, 
exert. And that the fame Spirit, which, when 
cloathed with one Sett of material Organs, 
is only capable of exerting its Intelligence 
in the Performance of Attraclion or Repnl- 
fion, and when jarring Elements meet, 
breaks forth in Thunder and Lightening, 
and Earthquakes, or any other mechani- 
cal Operations^ may, when united to a dif- 
ferent Sett of Organs, of a more exquidte 
and delicate Contexture, be capable of ex- 
ercifing voluntary Motion, may be enabled 
to think and to reafon, to operate in Love 
or Hatred, and, when provoked by Op- 
pofition, may be agitated with Anger and 
Refentment, and break forth in Quarrels, 
Contention, and War. 

XXVn. What other Spirits there are in 
theUniverfe, befide thofe which belong to this 
terraqueous Globe, and how or when they 
came into Exigence, human Underftandings 
sire not capable of pointing out : But more 


An Essay on Spirit. 29 

tban probable it is, that the great Expanfe 
is full of Spirits of different Ranks and De- 
grees, from the loweft Power of A6livlty to 
the higheft Degree of Perfedllon, which it Is 
poflible for created Spirits to be pofTefTed of. 

XXVm. To what Degree of Perfeaion 
Spirits are capable of being created, human 
Knowledge cannot poflibly determine : But 
certain it is, that the Degree muft be limited 
in every Being, but God alone ; and that 
God cannot create or produce any Being, 
equal in Power to, or independent on, him- 
felf; becaufe two All-powerfuls, two Su- 
premes, would imply a Contradiciion. 

XXIX. We may, however, eafily fuppofe, 
that God may communicate to the Works qf 
his Hands, fuch Portions of his own Attri- 
butes, as are greatly beyond the Comprehen- 
fion of Mankind to conceive : Becaufe God 
can do every thing that does not imply a 
Contradiction. For, as a blind Man can- 
not apprehend how a Shepherd, from- the 
Top of an Hill, can prefide over feveral 


30 An Essay on Spirit. 

Flocks of Sheep, wandering about, at a 
Piftance from each other ; how he knows 
when they ftray, or how, by the Help of 
his Eye-fight, he can be, as it were, om- 
nipr^fent : So a Man of the greateft Abili- 
ties may, for Want of Faculties, be un- 
able to conceive that Power, whereby a 
created intelligent Agent, of fuperior Qua- 
lifications to thofe communicated to Man- 
kind, can be enabled to fee in Darknefs as 
well as Light ; to know the inmofi: Recedes 
and Thoughts of Men's Hearts ; to pre- 
fide at once over fiich a World as this which 
we inhabit, and where two or three are ga- 
thered together, there to be alfb Invifibly in 
the Midft of them : And yet fuch a Power 
may certainly be communicated, becaufe \% 
implies no Contradiction, 

XXX. Li like Manner, therefore, as wc 
fee Mankind fiirnifiied with Abilities to con- 
trive and form feveral Machines of won- 
derful Force and Efficacy ; to build Houfes 
and Ships, make Clocks and Watches ; and 
govern Kingdoms : So there feems to be no 


An Essay on Spirit. 31 

Contradi<5lion, in fuppofing that God might 
communicate fo much Power to one of his 
own Creatures, of a more exalted Nature 
than Man, as to enable him to create infe- 
rior Beings, and frame a World of his own, 
compofed of intelligent Agents : Which Pow- 
er, however, muft be limited, and mufl be 
dependent on the Supreme Being. 

XXXI. And, as the Almighty God is the 
only fupreme, infinite, unlimited. Being in 
the Univerfe ; fo is he, probably, the only 
unembodied Spirit that exifts : That is, the 
only Spirit which is not limited, clogged, 
and fettered, with fome Kind, or Degree, of 
ina6tive Matter, which may ferve to give a 
Form and Shape, or Boundary, to its fpiri- 
tual Nature. For (2) there are Bodies cos- 
lejiialy and Bodies terrejlrial ; but the Glory 
of the cceleflial is one, and the Glory of the 
terrejlrial is another. And as we know not 
what the EfTence of that inactive Principle 
is, which we call Matter, we cannot fay, 

(z) I Gr. XT, 40, 


31 An Essay on SplRit. 

to what exquifite Degrees of Perfedlion its 
Properties are reducible, or what Improve- 
ment it is capable of receiving ; but that fome 
(3) Spirits may be Rirnifhed with Bodies of 
fo delicate a Texture, that they may cloath 
themfehes with Light, as it were with a 
Garment, may make the Clouds their Cha- 
riots, and walk upon the Wirtgs of the Wind t 
By the organical Difpofition of which Bo- 
dies, the Spirits united thereto may be ca- 
pable of receiving and communicating to 
each other Ideas of bodily Pain and bodily 
Pleafurc, as well as intelle(5lual Pain and in- 
tellectual Pleafure, may have their Affec- 
tions and ther Paflions as well as we ; their 
Friendfhips and Animoflties ; their Wars 
and Alliances ; none of which, however, 
we can form any real Idea, or Notion of. 

(3) Moft of the ancient Fathers fuppofed the Angels to 
have Bodies. See Clemens Alex. Pedag. 41 p. 10 1 : as alfo' 
Huetii Origeniana, lib. ii. c. 2, 5. Tertullian was fo abfurd,- 
as to fuppofe even God to hav€ a Body. Tert. de carne 
Chrifi. cap. 1 1, which I fuppofe he borrowed from the old 
Platonic Notion, of God being the Soul of ihe World. But 
tins God, he ought to have confidered, was not fuppofed to 
be the Supreme God. See Plats in Timao : See alfo Firg. 
j^ncid. lib. vi. v, 721. 


An Essay on Spirit. 33 

for Want of the fame Kind of Senfes, which 
they are fumifhed with ; any more than a 
deaf Man can of Sounds, or a blind Man 
can of Light and Colours. 

XXXII. And, as to the Time when they 
Were created, we are as ignorant of that, as 
\ve are of their Natures. But probable it 
is, that as God is an adtive Spirit, for God 
is a Spirit, and hath exifted from all Eter- 
nity, he hath been conflantly employed in 
exerting this aftive Faculty ; and therefore 
may have created fome intelligent Beings, 
from fuch a diftant Duration of Time, as 
we can no otherwife defcribe but by calling 
it eternah For to imagine that there are no 
Spirits in the wide Expanfe of Space, but 
what have Reference to this terraqueous 
Globe, this Speck of Matter, on which 
Mankind are placed, or even this planetary 
Syftem, which is vifible to human Eyes ; 
and that no Worlds, filled with intelligent 
Spirits, were created till about 6000 Years 
ago ; about which Time, both Reafon and 
Revelation agree, that this Ball of Earth 

F began 

34 -^^2 Essay on Spirit. 

began to revolve about the Sun, is a Tliouglit 
unworthy of a Philofopher, and inconfifteni 
with the Infinity of God's Pov^-er, as well 
as with the Eternity of his Erxiftence. 

XJvXIII. And yet we ought to take No- 
tice, that in the Language of the Scriptures, 
both in the Old and New Teftament, when 
the Creation is fpoken of, it is only to be 
confidered as referring to the Creation of 
this World, in which there is no Mention 
made of the Creation of Angels, or of any 
other Beings, becaufe it would have been fo- 
reign to the Purpofe : And that therefore, 
St* "John begins his Gofpel with the fame 
Exprcflion that Mofes does ; in the Begin- 
ning, i. e, of this World. For when wc 
ipeak of any Beings, which exifted before 
this World was created, having no Meafures 
of Time, whereby, to denote, or diftlnguifh 
the diiferent Durations of their Exiftence, 
we mull: equally fay of them all, that they 
cxiftcd (4) /";/ the Beginni?ig, cr b'^fore the 

(4) Gen. i. i. John'x. 1. xvii. 5. Pfal. cii. 5. Prov.vnx. 
22. 23. Micah V. 2. 


An Essay on Spirit. 3 J 

World was, or of old, or from Everlajimg* 
See Seft. L. LI. LII. 

XXXIV. And as God may communicate 
what Proportions he pleafes of his Attri- 
butes, to the different Gradations of created 
Beings, with which he hath been pleafed to 
fill the Univerfe : Each of thefe, with re- 
gard to Beings of their own Species, may 
have fuch Faculties and Properties communi- 
cated to them, as m.ay render thein know- 
able to each .other. But, with regard to 
Beings of a different Nature, thofc of a 
fuperior, or more excellent Kind, may not 
be cognifable, by Beings of an inferior Or- 
der ; though Beings of an inferior Kind may 
be eaiily cognifable to thofe of a more ex- 
alted Nature ; the Properties of the one be- 
ing of too exquifite and delicate a Frame 
and Contexture, to affe(5l the Perception or 
ftrike the Scnfes of the other. And hence 
it is, that human Beings may be furroundcd 
with Myriads of fpiritual Agents, without 
ever being fenfible thereof; unlefs thofe fu- 
F 2 pcrior 

3^ An Essay 07i Spirit, 

perior Beings are pleafed to affume fuch 
Forms, and condefcend to furnifh them-: 
felves with fuch Qualifications, as are ca- 
pable of making an ImprefTion on the hu- 
man Spirit from within, or the human Seii^ 
fes from without. 

XXXV. Heftod^ one of the firfl: Heathen 
Authors extant, fuppofeth Myriads of invi- 
fible Spirits cloathed in Air, attending upon 
this terreftrial Globe, and employed as An- 
gels, that is, Meffengers, between the great 
God and Mankind, obferving their Adlions, 
and reporting them to Jupiter. And (5) 
Plato fays, that " Saturny well knowing 
*' that there was no Man who could have 
*' abfolute Empire over others, without 
'' abandoning himfelf to all Kinds of Vio^ 
" lence and Injuftice, fubje^ed the Nations 
** not to Men, but to more noble and ex- 
*^ cellent Beings, as their Lords and Go-. 
" vernors ; namely, to (6) Damons, or /«- 

*' telUgent 

(5) ?latQ^ de Leg. lib. iv. 


An Essay on Spirit. 37 

*^ telUgent Spirits^ of a more divine and 
^* better Nature than themfelves, after the 
^* fame Manner, as we deal with our Cat^ 
** tie : For, as we do not fet a Bull over 
^* an whole Herd of his own Kind, nor a 
** Goat to govern a Flock of Goats ; but 
-* put thofe of both Kinds, under the Con- 
?* duiSt of a Man ; fo God, who loves 
*' Mankind, placed them, at (irft, under 
'' the Condua: of Angels." 

XXXVI. The (7) Greeks, it is certain, and 
Flato^ in particular, borrowed many of their 
theological Sentiments from the Hebrews ; 
among whom this, of a Number of invi- 
fible Spirits, attending upon this Globe of 
Earth, and prefiding over States and King- 
doms, was certainly one. For the Opi- 
nion of the yews upon this Head was, that 

Word Damon, w? are not to underftand Etil-Spirits, as it 
hath been vulgarly thought to mean ; but rather happy 
ones, the Word Aat^wsi, Damon, originally fignifying bappy. 
But as thofe Spirits to which the Heathen gave the Appella- 
tion of happy, have been deemed by Chrt/Iiatis to be rather 
unhappy and evil Spirits : Therefore this Word is generally 

(7) See Eu/eh. Prsp. Evang. p. 507. 


38 j^n Essay on Spirit. 

Almighty God, the firfl: Author and Crea- 
tor of all Things, was of fo tranfcendent a 
Nature, that before he created Beings of 
the loweft Rank, he produced an infinite 
Variety of Beings, in a gradual Defcent, 
which were flill greater and fuperior to 
others, who yet were employed by him to 
a<5l in a middle Station, between him and 
the lower Productions of his Almighty 
Power. The Septuagint Tranflation of 
the Bible therefore renders that PafTage in 
the Song of Mofes, which is mentioned, 
Deut. xxxii. 8, 9, after this Manner ; AJk 
thy Father y and he will Jhew thee -, thy El-' 
ders, and they will tell thee : When the Mojl 
High divided the Nations their Inheritance j 
When he feparated the Sons oj Adam, he 
Jet the 'Bounds of the Nations according to 
the Number oj the Angels oj Gody and the 
Lord's Portion is his People Jacob, the (8) 
Line oj his Inheritance Ifrael. And the 
wife Son of Sirach faith, (9) For in the 

(8) Or Boundary. See I Cor. X. l6. 

(9) Ecclus. xvii. 17. 


An Essay on Spirit, 39 

Divijion of the Nations of the whole Earthy 
God fet a Ruler (or Governing Angel) over 
every People ; but Ifrael is the Lord's For- 
tion. The Jews accordingly fuppofed fome 
of thefe Angels to have been appointed as 
Guardian or Governing Spirits (i), over 
the feveral Nations of the Earth ; and that 
the Portion of Ifrael was particularly com- 
mitted to the Care of that Being, who is 
here denoted by the Name of the Lord* 

XXXVII. It ought to be acknowledged, 
however, that the Words here quoted out 
of the Book of Deuferonofny, as rendered 
by the Septuagint, do not exadlly agree 
with the Hebrew Copy of the Bible. For, 
according to the Hebrew, it fhould run thus : 
When the Moft High divided the Natio?is 
when he feparated the Sons of Adam, he fet 
the Bounds of the Nations according to the 
Number of the Children o/' Ifrael, and ]e^ 

{ 1 ) It appears alfo from Clemens Alexandrinus, that this 
was the Opinion of the Chrijiian Church in his Time. See 
Gem. Alt?;. Strom, p. 309, 822, 828, 830, 832, Edit. Oxon. 


J^0 An Essay on Spirit* 

HOVAH*j Portion is his People: Jacob /^ 
the Lot of his Inheritance. But it fliould 
be obferved, that althdngh this Separation^ 
or Difperfion of the Sons of Adam^ this 
fetting the Bounds of the Nations^ was a 
Tranfaftlon which came to pafs long be- 
fore Ifrael had any Children to number, or 
tvas even himfelf In Being ; yet the Com^ 
mentators have taken much Pains to recon- 
cile this Text with the Matter of Fa6l % 
and to make the Number of the various 
Nations upon Earth, agree with the Num^ 
ber of the Children of Ifrael-, which, ne- 
verthelefs, they have not been able to ac- 
complifh : For* if the Number of the Chil* 
dren of Ifrael be computed by the Number 
of his immediate Defcendents, which were 
only thirteen, 'viz. twelve Sons^ and one 
Daughter ; this Number would be too few 
for the Number of Nations difperfed over 
the Earth ; and if all the Defcendents of 
Ifrael be taken into the Account, then the 
Number will be infinitely too large. As 
therefore the reading of this Text accor- 
ding to the Septuagint Verfion, is fupported 


An Essay on Spirit* 41 

by that PafTage, already quoted, out of the 
Book of Ecclefia/iicuSi as well as by other 
Parts of the Old Teflament ; and corref- 
ponds with the general Opinion of the moft 
learned ancient Jews : I am inclined to 
prefer the Septuagint Verfion of this Text, 
to the prefent Reading in our Hebrew 

XXXVm. And what adds no rmall 
Weight with me in this Affair, is an Ex- 
preflion made Ufe of by St. (2) Paul, in 
his Epiftle to the Hebrews^ where, fpeaking 
of the fecond coming of Our Saviour, when 
he fhall appear in a State of Glory, mani- 
feflly fuperior to Angels, he fays, For unto 
the Angels hath he not put in Subjection the 
iForld to come of which we [peak. Whence 
it feems to appear, that it was St. TauV^ 
Opinion, that this prefent World had been 
put in Subje(5lion to Angels. 

{2) Hihr^. 5. 


42 An Eassy on Spirit. 

XXXIX. Which Ophiion is alfo confir- 
med by St. 'Jude, who feems to attribute 
the Error of the fallen Angels, who finned, 
as (3) St. Peter exprefTeth it, to their Mif- 
condu6t in the Government of thofe Pro- 
vinces which were allotted to their Charge. 
For, fays he, AJ^jA^s rg t85 few ryipva-ocvlcci 
rnv icLuicuv 'Ap^wj', dhXa. diroKiirovicLS to 

S^Sa-JULOlS cl'l(^lQlS VTTO ^0(pOP TsTWpjJCgJ/. The jiU" 

gels 'which kept not their Principalities with 
due Care ; but negledied their proper Pro- 
vinces, he (God) hath rejerved in everlajl- 
ing Chains under Darknefs : ¥ox fo this 
Verfe ought to be tranflated. The Verb 
Tr)piMy which we tranflate kept, fignifying 
the keeping of a Thing with Care and 
Diligence : In which Senfe it is ufed, when 
it is applied in the Septuagint, to the (4) 
keeping the Commandments of God, and 
keeping our own Hearts, and our Ways. 

(3) 2 Pet. ii. 4. 

(4) I Sam.XY. 11. Prev. iii. l. zi. iv, 23. viii. 34. 


An Essay on Spirit. 43 

And in Canticles vii. 11, 12, it is ufed to 
denote the Keepers of a Vineyard, who 
were to drefs it, and cultivate it. And, as 
to the Word 'Ap;^/), that is generally ufed- 
by the Septuagint to denote a Frmcipality, 
as this Word is rendered in the Margin o£ 
our Englijh Bible. And it is to be obfer- 
ved, that it is the Word "Apx'^iv and "A/j- 
;^ov']g5, which Daniel gives to thofe ruling 
Angels, which are faid, in the Book of (5) 
Daniel, to prefide over the Realms of Gra- 
day Perfta^ and Ifrael. The Word aVo- 
XeiiTM) which our Tranflatlon renders left, 
is frequently applied by the Septuagint, to 
denote the leaving or neglecting any Bufi- 
nefs, which it was our Duty to have purfu- 
cd ; as when (6) Baafia is faid to have left off' 
building Ramah, a?id let his Work ceafe. 
And when Solomon blameth the (7) fl range 
Woman^ for forsaking the Guide oj her 
Toz^/^. The Word o'ixA'fioy, though itproperly 

( T^nn. X. 13, 20, 2 1 . Jli. I , 

(6) 2 Chron, xvi. ^. 

(7) Pro'v. ii. 17. 

G 2 fignifics 

44-* •^''^ Essay on Spirit. 

{ignifies a Dwellifig-place, in general, yet it 
is not confined to (ignify a Houfe, nor even 
a Province, or larger Space of Ground ; 
but is by the Prophet (8) Jeremiah applied 
to denote the wide Extent of God's holy 
Habitation in Heaven : However, it is- 
here retrained by the Word TcTior, to 
denote the proper and peculiar Provinces 
of thefe Angels, which they may be fuppo- 
fed to have been employed in the Conduct 
and Management of; and accordingly, the 
Word oi-iLi\v\s denotes fuch a Domeftick as is 
employed in the Bufinefs of the Houfe, and 
is always ufed by the Septuagint to fignify 
a (9) Servant. And therefore^ this Expref- 
fion of 'AiroXnrlv^tCLS to 'iS'iov oix-vlyipiovy may 
very well be underftood to fignify their for- 
faking, or neglecting, their proper Bufinefs, 
or Provinces, that were given into their 
Charge by God. 

XL. As for the Opinion of the more 
jnpdern Jeics, it is no eafy Matter to coir 

(8) Jer. XXV. 30. 

(9) Gen. ix. 25. xxvii. 37. xliv. 33, ^c. j^^ 

An Essay 07i Spirit. 45 

Ie6l or fix their Sentiments ; becaufe that, 
fince the corning of our Saviour, the Jeivs^ 
not being willing to abide by the Expofi- 
tlons given to the Prophecies In the Old 
Teftament, by the ChriftianSy or even by 
their own ancient Paraphrafts, made a Col- 
kiftlon of their oral Traditions, which 
they gathered together into one Book, which 
they called the Tahiud : And finding many 
feeming ContradI6lIons In the literal Inter- 
pretation of thofe Texts of Scripture, which 
were unlverfally allowed by the ancient 
Jews to refer to their Mcfliah ; and not 
being willing to expound them of different 
Advents of one and the fame Perfon ; the 
one In a State of Humiliation, and the 
other in a State of Glory ; the one in this 
World, and the other in the next ; they then 
run Into numberlefs abfurd Contrivances, of 
expounding the Scriptures by a cabaliillcal 
Method of Interpretation, in fijiding out 
myfterlous and hidden Meanings, not only 
in the Sentences and Words of Scripture, 
but alfo In the very Letters themfelvcs, as 


46 A?i Essay on Spirit. 

well as in the Number of Letters, of which 
thofe Words were compofed : And, by 
this Means, the Learning of the more mo- 
dern "Je^^s is reduced into fuch a nonfenfl- 
cal Jargon of Sounds, without Senfe, as 
makes their Works infinitely tirefome in the 
Perufal. And therefore, rather than fa- 
tigue my Reader with an Account of fuch 
Trifles, I fhali chufe to lay before him the 
Opinion of the mofl fenfible and learned 
among the ancient 'Jews, as I find it collec- 
ted very judicioufly, by Eufebius Bifhop of 
Ccefarea in Palejiine, who mufl: be allow- 
ed to be a tolerable Judge, becaufe he lived 
amongfl: them in the Land of Judcea. 

XL. (i) " The yewsy fays he, after 
that Eflence of the All-powerful God, 
who had neither Beginning, nor Origin, 
place that (2) Head, or Chief, which was 


(i) Eiifeh. Prsp. Evang. lib. rii. cap. ij. 

(2) 'Af>%^, which Word is fometimes ufed by the Authors 
of the SeptuagintVerfionof the Bible, inftead of'AfXfliv, to 
denote the Head, or Chief, of any Society, or coUeftive Body 
of Men. See Exod. vi. 21, > 

** begotten 

/In Essay on Spirit. 47 

" begotten of the Father, and therefore 
" was his Firft-born. Which, as he is 
" the Co-adjutor of his Council, is there - 
" fore called the Image of his Father. 
" Which ChteJ, as he far exceeds all crea- 
••* ted Beings, is for this Reafon called the 
" Image of God, the Wifdom of God, the 
** Logos, or Word oj God, the Prince of 
** the Lord's Hoft, and the Angel of his 
** Council. As to thofe Intelligcncies, which 
** come after this Chief, they are of fuch 
** various and different Forms, that human 
** Expreflions cannot denote them, but by 
** Compariibn and Analog}^ to thofe Things 
** which are the Objedts of our Sen- 
*-* fes ; as the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, 
** and the Heaven, which enclofeth all 
*' Things. As the divine Apoftle does, 
" when he fays, there is one Glory of the 
" Sun, and another Glory of the Moon, and 
" another Glory of the Stars ^ for one Star 
* * differeth from another Star in Glory, In 
" like Manner, muft we think of the Sub- 
** ordination of unbodied, intelligent. Be- 
** ings. For, as the ineffable and infinite 

** Power 

48 An Essay on Spirit. 

** Power of God (like Heaven) compre* 
*' hends all Things ; in the fecond Place 
*' comes the operating and illuminating 
** Power of the divine Logos ; for which 
" Reafon he is called by the Hebr£ws, the 
*' Light y and the (3) Sun of Jujiice : 
*' Then, after this (4) fecond Eflence, ais 
** it were in the Place of the Moon^ comes 
•* the holy Spirit, which they place in this 
" royal Dignity, and Degree of (5) Principa- 
" lity ; bccaufe it is the Will of the great 
" Archite6t to appoint him to the Princi- 
** pality of thofe inferior Beings, which may 
<* want his Afliftance, Who therefore, ob- 
" taining the third Place, confers on thofe 
** who are inferior to him, thofe excellent 
•* Virtues, which he himfelf received from 
•* another, to wit, from the divine Logos ^ 
*' his Better and Superior ; whom we before 
** fald was the fecond to the fupreme, un- 
" begotten, and almighty, God. — So, fays 

(3) Mai. iv. 7.. Which Phih Judaui inteqirets of the 

(4) Aivlifuv ialav. 

" he, 

-^// Essay on Spirit. 49 

** he, all the Hebrew Divines, after that 
** God, who is over all, and after his firft- 
** born Wifdom, pay (6) divine Worfhip 
** to the third and holy Power, which they 
** call the holy Spirit, by which they them- 
" felves are illuminated, when they are di- 
** vinely infpired." 

XLIL In another Place, (7) Enfebins, 
in explaining the Sentiments of the Jews^ 
fays, that, ** as Milefius made a fecond 
" Principle of Water ; Heraclitus of Fire ; 
'** and Pythagoras of Numbers, &c ; fo the 
** yews made a fecondary Eflence of the 
" Logos y which was begotten by the Firji 
« Caufe:' 

XLin. And in another Place, (8) Eu- 

febius quotes a Paflage out of Fhilo Judaus^ 

wherein that Author calls the Logos, the 

(9) Second God, in whofe Image Man was 

created. And again, where he calls this 

(6) AwoSwa^oto'ni. 

(7) Eufeb. Praep. Evang. lib. vii. cap. 12. 

(8) Eu/eb.?x?£^. Evang. lib. vii. cap. 13. 

(9) £nvii^oi Qm. 

H Logos, 

50 An Essay on Spirit. 

Logos^ The iirft-born Son of God, to whom 
€jod had committed the Care of all Things, 
( I ) as a great King appoints a Minijier^ or 
Vice7'o\\ to aB under him, 

XLIV. And, in another Place, (2) he 
quotes Fhilo, for calling this Second Caufe^ 
the Image of God^ the jirfi-born Logos, the 
viofi ancient of Angels^ andy as it were the 
Archangel^ fuhfifiing with tnany Names. For, 
fays Philoj He is called the (3) Chiefs the 
Name oj God, the Logos, the Image, and 
the (4) Overfeer, Vifiter, or Regarder, of 

XLV. I am very fcnfible that fome lear- 
ned Men are of Opinion, that thefe were 
only the Sentiments of the fews belonging 
to Palep.ijie and Egypt ; but if we look in- 
to thofe Books, which contain the Doctrines, 

( I } OTflt TK |U.iya>kOw ^ucCKiu^ irVUfXPi ^x^e^ilett. 

^ (2) Eu/ei. Prxp. Evang. lib. xi. cap. 15, Uift rshvlifou 


{5) {^fx}i: 

(4) 'O ofuv iiTfariA. 


An Essay 07i Spirit. 51 

which all Jews either do, or ought to pro- 
fefs, that is, the Scriptures of the Old 
Teftament, we fiiall find that there is great 
Foundation for the afore-mentioned Opi- 
nions of the Jews, with regard to Angels ; 
and for all thefe Appellations, which are 
here given to th^s fecoiidary Effcncey who is, 
by PhilOf very juftly called, the Archajigel 
withmanyNames, For the Prophet (5) Daniel 
declares, that the Angel Gabriel, having 
touched him, and fpoken to him, faid, that 
he was come to make him widerjia?id what 
Jhould bejal his People in the latter Days, 
and that he would have come fooner, but 
that the (6) Prince (or ruling or governing 
Angel) of the Kingdom of Perfia withftood 
him one and twenty Days, till Michael, one 
dj the chief Princes, or, as the Hebrew 
exprefleth it, the First Prince, ca7ne to 
help him. And again, the Angel fays. And 
now I will return to fight againfl the Prince 

(5) D<3«. viii. 16. ix. 2!. X. 13, 20, 21. x!i. i. 

(6) Heb. "yii- Sept. "A^^'^-n Simmias, the Diiciple of 
Socrates, in Plato s Phaedo, fpeaking of Guardian -Angels, 
calls them AsoTrola?, i. e. Lords or Govemsrs. 

H 3 cj 

J I An Essay on Spirit. 

of Perfia, and when I am gone forth ^ lo the 
Prince of Graecia fiall come. But I will 
fiew thee what is noted in the Scripture of 
^ruth ; and there is none that holdeth with 
me in thefe T^hings^ but Michael your 
Prince, And a little afterwards he calleth 
Michael the Great Prince which Jlandeth 
for the Childre?! of Ifrael. Or, as Philo 
would have exprefled it, o opcau Ifrpa-nX ' He 
that regardethy or is the Guardian Angel of, 

XLVI. And correfpondent hereto the 
Septuagint Tranflation of the Bible, as be- 
fore quoted, renders that Pailage in the 
Song of Mojes, which is mentioned, Deut, 
xxxii. 8, 9. AJk thy Father, and he will 
Jlxw thee j thy Elders, and they will tell thee ; 
When the Moft High divided to the Na- 
tions their Inheritance ; when he feparated 
the Sons of Adam, he fet the Bounds of the 
Nations according to the Number of the An- 
gels of God, and the Lord*^ Portion is his 
People Jacob, the Line of his Inheritance 
Ifrael. Upon which Words Eufebius has 


An Essay on Spirit. 55 

this Remark. (7) <* By the Words the Mojl 

** Highy Mofes denotes the Father, who is 

" God over all ; and by the Lord^ he means 

*^ the Logos, who is called Lord, as being, 

" with regard to us, next to that God who 

** is over all. But, fays he, all Nations 

*' whom he calls the Sons of Adam, were, 

*' for Reafons to us unfearchable, diftribu- 

" ted according to the Will of the Moft 

" High, to Governing and Guardian An- 

** gels, who elude our Sight. But to the 

*' moil: eminent Governor, Ruler, and King 

** of all, as to his only Son, he allots the 

" Government of Jacob, or IfraeL" And 

in this Interpretation he is fupported by Cle- 

mens Alexandrinus, who fays pofitively, that 

(8) Angels were appointed by God to pre fide 

over Notions and Cities : That (9) they 

are his Minifters in the Governmeut of ter-^ 

reflrial ^ffdrs ', and, in (i) particular, that 

(7) Eufeb. Dem. Evang. lib. iv. cap. 7. 

(8) Clem. Alex. Strom, lib. vi. p. 822. Edit. Ppt. 
(g) Id. ibid. lib. vii. p. 839. 

(i) Id. ibid. p. 832. 


J 4 -^^ Essay on Spirit. 

they were by his Command dijlributed among 
the Nations^ &c. 

XLVIL Whence it Is manlfefl-, that, ac- 
cording to the Scriptures of tlie Old Tefta- 
ment, Angels were appointed to prefide 
over People and Nations upon Earth, and 
that one Angel, in particular, who is called 
by Mofes (2) Jehovahy and by the Septua- 
gint is tranflated the Lord, had IfraeJ affign- 
ed to him by the Moft Highy as the Portion 
of his Inheritance ; and therefore may very 
reafonably be fuppofed to be the fame Perfon 
with that Firji Prince, mentioned by Daniel, 
whom he alfo calleth Mi c h a e l, the great 
Prince which fiandethjor the Children oj If- 
rael ; and with that Archangel with many 
Names, whom Philo calls the Regarder of 

XL VIII. And what is remarkable, Is 
this, that this Name of Michael, which is 
given by Daniel to this Archangel, literally 

(2) See Sea. XXXVII. 


An Essay o?i Spirit. yy 

fignlfies (3) who is like God; and, accor- 
dingly, Philo obferves, that one of the 
Names belonging to this Archangel was, the 
Image of God, Which Image (4) he calleth 
the Logos and the Second God, and fuppofed 
Man to have been made in the ImaQ;e of this 
Image ; Becaufe, fays he, ** nothing mortal 
** can be formed in the Image of the Su- 
** preme God, the Father of all Things." 

XLIX. Which Logos, or Word of God, 
is, in the Book of Wifdom, manifeftly fpo- 
ken of, as the Guardian Angel of Ifrael ; 
where the Author of that elegant Work, in 
defer ibing the (5) Angel, who was fent to 
refcue them from their Egyptian Bondage, 
by deftroying the Firft-born of the Egyp- 
tians, fays : For (6) while all Things were 
in quiet Silence, and that Night was in the 
Midfi of her fwift Courfe, thine Almighty 

(3) The Word iWiV^W, being derived from the three fl/- 
^rfw Words: Mi, which fignifies au-J»o ; C/^«, which fignilies 
/o, ox like, ox the fame I nxidE/, which fignifics Go</. 

(4) Eu/eh. Prasp. Evang. lib. vii. cap. 13. 

(5) Exod. xxiii, 21. 

(6) JTifJ.xyin. 13—16. 


jtf An Essay on Spirit. 

Word leapt down from Heaven ^ out oj thj 
royal Ihrone^ as a fierce Man of War into 
the Midd of a Land of DeftruBion, and 
brought thy unfeigned Commandment, as a 
fharp Swordy and Jianding up, filed all 
things with Death, and it touched the Hea- 
ven, but it flood upon the Earth, And there- 
fore alfo the Jerufalem Targum on Exod* 
xii. 23, where it is faid in the Hebrew : 
And Jehovah will pafs through to fmite 
the Egyptians, paraphrafes it by faying. 
Aid the V\! oKT> OF ] eh o y au fiall pafs 
through to fmite the Egyptians. Which Ex- 
preffion of Memra yehovce, or Word of 
Jehovah, is fo favourite an Expreflion 
among all the Chaldee Paraphrafts on the 
Old Teftament, that where the original Ex- 
preflion in the Hebrew, fays, Jehovah did 
fuch or fuch a Thing, they commonly para- 
phrafe it, by attributing thofe Operations to 
the Memra, that is, the Logos, or Word 
of Jehovah. Inftances of which it would 
be endlefs to produce. 

L. And 

An Essay on Spirit. 57 

L. And as this Angel, whofe Portion is 
Ifraely is called the JVord of God, becaufe 
God employeth him to carry his Word ; fo 
is he alfo, by the fame Figure of Rhetoric, 
called the Wijdom of Gody becaufe he is em- 
ployed by God to execute the Purpofes of 
his Wifdom. For thus the wife Son of Si" 
rach, when fpeaking of this Guardian An- 
gel of Ifrael, by the Name of Wifdom, 
fays (7), / came out of the Mouth of the 
Moji High, and covered the Earth as a 
Cloud. 1 dwelt in high Places, and my 
throne is in a cloudy Pillar. So the Crea- 
tor of all Tihings gave me a Command- 
mint , and he that made me caufed me to 
reft, and faid, let thy Dwelling be in Jacob, 
and thine Inheritance in Ifrael. He crea- 
ted me Jrom the Beginni?2g, before the 
World, and I foall never fail. In the holy 
tabernacle Iferved him ; and fo was I e/la- 
blified in Sion. Likewife in the beloved 
City he gave me Reji, and in Jerufalem was 

(7) Ecdus. xxiv. I, — 12. 


58 An Essay on Spirit. 

my Power. And I took Root in an honou- 
rable People^ evefi in the Portio?i of the 
Lord's Inherita?ice. I therefore being eter- 
nal, am given to all my Children which 
are named of him, i. e, I am fent to the 
Children of Ifraely who are God's peculiar 
People, and are fo named of him. See 
hev, xxvi. 12. Micah iv. 5. 

LI. Where it is to be obferved, that this 
Being is fpoken of, as coming out of the Mouth 
of the Mofl: High, made and created-, which 
mufl: be underftood in the fame Senfe with 
thofe Words oi Mofes, when he defcribes the 
Creation of Light : And Godfaid, let there 
be Light ; and there was Light ^ Gen. i. 3. 
It is likewife to be obferved, that this Guar- 
dian Angel of Ifraely whofe Throne was 
in the cloudy Pillar, &c, is here declared 
to have been a created Being, in Terms as 
ftrong and plain as it is in the Power of 
Language to exprefs. It may alfb fur- 
ther be remarked, that although he is pofi- 
tively faid to have been made and created, 
yet becaufe he was fpoken into Exiftence 


^n Essay on Spirit. yj^ 

before the Sun and the Moon, thofe Mea- 
fures of Duration, which were given Man- 
kind, (8) for Signs J and Jor Seajom, and 
for Days, and Jor Tears ; becaufe he was 
in the Beginning, before the World, he 
ftiles himfelf eternal. See Se6t. XXXIJI. 

Ln. And in the fame Kind of Stile it is 
that Solomon, fpeaking of this fame Being, 
under the Denomination of Wifdom, repre- 
fents it as a feparate intelligent Agent, per- 
fonally fubfifting with GoAfrofn Everlafting, 
becaufe it was brought forth before the Cre- 
ation of this World. For thus, fpeaking 
in the Perfon, and under the Chara&r of 
Wifdom, he faith (9), Jehovah (i) pofejfed 
7ne in the Beginning of his Ways, before his 
Works of old, I was fet up from ever- 
lasting, from the Begi?ining, or ever the 
Earth was. When there were no Depths, I 
was brought forth ; when there were 
no Fountains abounding with Water. Be- 

(8) Gen. i. 14. 

(9) Prov. viii. 22. 

( 1 ) In the Septuagint it is, The Lord created me. 

I 2 Jore 

6o A71 Essay <j;^ Spirit. 

fore the Mount aim were fettled 5 before the 
Hills was I BROUGHT FORTH : While 
ds yet he had not made the Earthy nor 
the Fields^ nor the higheji Part of the Dujl 
oj the World. When he prepared the Hea- 
vens I was there : When he fet a Compafs 
upon the Face of the Deep : When he gave 
to the Sea his Decree, that the Water Jhould 
not pafs his Commajidment : When he ap- 
pointed the Foundations of the Earth -, then 
1 was by him as one brought up with him : 
And I was always his Delight , rejoicing al- 
ways before him, 

LIII. But Philo fiiddeus further obferves, 
that this Archangel with many Names, 
whofe Portion was Ifrael^ was alfo called 
by the Name of God. Now let us fee what 
Foundation there is for this in the Scriptures 
of the Old Teftament. The Name of 
God, which the Jews never pronounced, 
but'called it the ineffable Name, was Jeho- 
vah ; fo that, whenever in reading the 
Bible, they met this Word, inftead thereof, 
they always faid Adonai or Elohim ; and the 


All Essay o?i Spirit. (Ji 

Authors of the Septuagint Tranflatlon of the 
Bible, who were yews, when they rendered 
it into Greek, always tranflated it by the 
Word Kvpioi, which we in Englifi render 
the Lord, Which is the Reafon alfo, why 
Philo does not mention that Name of God 
by which this Archangel was denominated, 
but fays only, in general, that he was cal- 
led by the Natne of God, Now the Inftan- 
ces in the Old Teftament, where an An- 
gel, and in particular, that Angel which 
aded as a Guardian Angel to the Seed of 
Abraham, and prefided over the Children* 
of Ifrael, is called Jehovah^ are very nu- 

LIV. Thus, when Hagar fled from the 
Face of her Miftrefs, it is faid, that an An- 
gel of Jehovah Jound her in the WildernefSy 
and the Angel of Jehovah fiid unto her : 
"Return to thy Mi/lrefs. Now, though Mo- 
fes in this Place calls the Perfon who fpake 
to Hagar an Angel of fehovah, yet Mofes 
afterwards mentions this fame Perfon under 
the diredt Name of Jehovah : For, fays 


6i An Essay on Spirit. 

he, (2) Hagar called the Name of ]?.vlo- 
V AH that /pake to her^ Ihou God feejl me, 

LV. Thus alfo it is faid of Abraham, 
that (3) Jehovah appeared unto him m the 
Plains oj Mamre ; and he fate in the T'ent- 
door in the Heat of the Day ; and he lift up 
his Eyes and looked, and loy three Men flood 
by him. Now that two of the Perfons 
which are here called Men, becaufe they ap- 
peared as fuch, had each of them the Ap- 
pellation of yehovah given them, will ap- 
pear from the Context : For when one of 
thefe Men enquired for Sarah, and faid, 
Lo ! Sarah thy Wife /hall have a Son ; upon 
which Sarah laughed within herfelf : Then 
it is pofitively faid, that Jehovah faid 
tmto Abraham, why did Sarah laugh f Is 
any thing too hard for Jehovah ? And yet it 
is faid, after all this, that the Men rofe up 
from thence ^ and looked towards Sodom ; 
and Abraham went with them to bring them 
on the Way : And Jehovah faid, (hall I 

{2) Gen. xvi. 7, — i j. 
(3) Gen. xviii. 1, t^r. 


An Essay on Spirit. 65 

hide jrom Abraham that thing which I dot 
And when two of the Men had turned their 
Faces from thence, and went towards 5*0- 
dom ; it is faid, Abraham jlood yet before 
Jehovah. And when Abraham was plea- 
ding in Favour of ^odom and Gomorrah^ 
he faid, among other Things, to this fe^ 
hovah with whom he was converfing, PjalJ 
not the fudge of all the Earth do right ? 
And when the Difcourfe was ended, Mofes 
fays, that Jehovah went his Way^ as 
foon as he had left communicating with Abra- 
ham, and Abraham returned to his Place, 
Whence it is manifefi: beyond all Doubt, that 
one of thefe three Men who was left alone 
in Converfation with Abraham^ is called 
Jehovah, and the Judge of all the Earth. 

LVI. And when the two Men, which 
had left Abraham and Jehovah converfing 
together, came to Sodom, it is faid, (4) 
And there came two Angels to Sodom at 
Even. And when the Morning arofe^ then 

(4) Gen. xix. I, iic. 


^4 -^^^ Essay on Spirit. 

/)&^ Angels hajlened Lot. And he faid^ 
that is, one of the Angels faid, Efcape for 
thy Life ; for I cannot do any thing till thou 
be come thither. And the Sun was rifen up- 
en the Earth, when Lot entered into Zoslu 
7hen Jehovah rained upon Sodom and 
upon Gomorrah Brimjlone and Fire from 
Jehovah out of Heaven. Whence it is 
plain, that one of thefe two Angels is here 
alfo dignified with the Appellation of fe- 
hovahy and yet is reprefented as ading un- 
der the Influence of another fehovah in 
Heaven. So that it is manifefl, here are 
two diftindl Perfons, or Angels, which ap- 
peared upon Earth, to each of which is gi- 
ven the Appellation of fehovah. 

LVIL Again, when Jacob lived with his 
Father Laban^ and was giving an Account 
to his Wives of their Father's Conduct and Be- 
haviour towards him, he fays, (5) And the 
Angel of God fpake to me in a Dream^ fay- 
ingy Jacob j and I faid, here am I; and he 

(5) Gen, xxiv. 47, xxxi. u» 


A72 Essay 07i Spirit. (^y 

faid^ I am the God of Bethel, where thou 
cinointedjl the Pillar and vowed a Vow u?2to. 
vie. Now the Vow which Jacob made at 
'Bethel was this, (6) If God be with me^^ 
and will keep me in this Wajy that I go^ and 
will give me Bread to e^t^ and Raiment to 
put on J fo that J come again to my Father's. 
Houfe in Peace: Then fiall Jehovah be 
my God. Whence it is pkin, that an An- 
gel of God, fpeaking to "Jacob, calls him- 
felf (7) y^^o'Utf^ the Go</ 0/^ Bethel. 

LVIII. Thus alfo we find it faid, that 
(8) /i6^ Angel of Jehovah appeared u?ito 
Mofes, in a Flame of Fire out of the Buf:, 
^nd Mofes [aid, I will now turn a/jde, and 
fee this great Sight, wJjy the BuJIj is not 
burnt. And when Jehovah Jaw that he 
had turned ajide to Jee^ God called unto 
him out oj the Midft of the BuJJ.\ Moreover, 
he faid, I am the God of thy Fathers, the 

(6) Gen. xjcvlii. 20, 21. 

(7) See alfo Gf«. xxxii. 24, ^c; and compare it with 
llofea xii. 4, 5. 

(8) Exod. iii, 2, 6, Ads vii. 30, 35. 

K God 

&& An Essay on Spirit. 

Gi?^ ^ Abraham, the God oj Ifaac, and the 
God oJ Jacob. And Mofes hid his Face y 
J or ke was afraid to look upon God. Where 
it is manifeft, that an Angel is called by 
MofeSy Jehovah ; and that the Angel calls 
himfelf, the God of Abrahanty the God of 
IJbac, and the God of Jacob:' '^' ^V -. '^^ ^'"''v 

LIX. Thusalfo, when the Children of ^ 
raelwcxQ marching towards the Red-Sea, if is 
faid, that (9) the Angel of God, which 
'went before the Camp of Ifrael, removed and 
went behind them, and the Pillar of the 
Cloud went from before their Face, and flood 
behind them. And yet, in another Place, it 
is faid, that (i) Jehovah went before 
them by Day in a Pillar of a Cloud, to lead 
them the Way -, and by Night in a Pillar of 
Fire^ to give them Light. 

LX. It is alfo faid, when Mofes went up 
to Mount Sinai, that (2) Jehovah called un- 

(9) Exod. xiv. ig. 
(i) Exod. xiii. 21. 
(2) Exod. xix. 3, ^f» 


An Essay on Spirit. 67 

to him out of the Mountain, And again, that 
Mofes came and called for the Riders of the 
People y and laid before their Faces all theje 
Words which Jehovah commanded him. 
And that Mofes returned all the Words of the 
People of Ifrael unto Jehovah. That Je- 
hovah Jaid again unto Mofes, go unto the 
People y and fa7i5iify them to- Day and to- 
Morrow y and be ready againjl the third Day : 
For the third Day Jehovah will come 
downy in the Sight oj all the People ^ upon 
Mount Sinai, ^nd the third Day, Mowit 
Sinai was altogether ohm Smoke ^ becaufe Je- 
hovah defc ended upon it in Fire. ^^ And 
Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai. — 
And ^'E'o.Qv K'A called up Mofes unto the 
7op of the Mount. And God [pake all thefe 
Words, faying, I am Jehovah thy God, 
which brought thee out of the Land of 
Egypt, ^f. And yet St. Stephen, who was 
a Jew, affirms, that (3) the Law was gi- 
ven by the Difpofition 0/ Angels : And 
that it was an Angel that [pake to Mofes 

(3) Ads vii. 33, 38. 

.\ ' K 2 from 

68 'Afi Essay on Spirit. ■ 

from Mount Sinai, a7id with our Fathers, 
who received the lively Oracles to give unto 
us. And St. 1*0111 fays, that (4) the Law 
was ordained of Angels. And, in his 
Epiille to the Hebre%vs, he calls it, (5) the 
Word Jpoken of Angels. 

LXT. It is likewife to be obferved, that, 
when (6) Mojes and Aaron, and Nadab 
and Abihu, and feventy of the Elders of 
IfraeU went up into the Mount, by the 
C-ommand of God, it is faid, T^hey faw 
the God of Ifrael ; — alfo they faw God, and 
did eat and dri?ik : That is, they faw the 
God of Ifrael, and did live to eat and 
drink. Whereas, when Mofes afterwards 
applied to God, and begged it of him, as 
a Favour, that he might fee his Glory, or 
Face, that he might know him ; (7) Je- 
hovah faid unto him, thou canjl not fee my 
■ Face ; for there fiall no Man fee me, and 

(4) Gal. iii. 9. 

(5) Heh. ii. 2. 

(6) Exod. xxiv. 10, i^c. 

(7) Exod. xxxiii. 17, (ifc. 


An Essay on Spirit. 6^ 

live. But, fays he to Mofes, I will make 
all my Goodtiefs pafs before thee, and I will 
proclaim the Name of Jehovah before 
thee : And it fJmll come to pafs, while my 
Glory paffeth by, that I will put thee in a 
Clift of the Rock, and will cover thee with 
my Hand while I pa/s by : And I will take 
away mine Hand, a?id thou Jloalt fee what (8) 
follows me -, but my Face fhall not be feen. 
And accordingly, when Mo/es returned to 
the Mount, it is faid, that Jehovah def- 
cended in the Cloud, and food with him 
there, and proclaimed the Name (?^ Jeho- 
vah. And ]EVi ow hH pajjed by before 
him and proclaimed ]ehow A¥i, Jehovah 
God, merciful and gracious, &c. ^nd Mo- 
fes made hafe^ and bowed his Head and 

(8) The Original, which in our Tranflation, we render 
Back-Parts, properly fignifies any Thing or Perfon that is 
behind or followeth another. In which Senfe it is ufed 
Gen. xviii. 10. When Mc/es faith, andS2LXz\\ heard it in the 
Tent-Door, luhich luas behind him. So alfo, Jojhua vi. 

13. And the Rearnvard folloived after the Ark. So alfo, 
2 Sam. X. g. If'^hen Joaby^w that the Front of the Battle 
'u:as again]} him before and BEHIND. See alfo 2 Chrcn. xiii, 

14, i^c. ijc. 

LXIL Whence 

yo v^;^ Essay 07i Spirit. 

- LXIL Whence it is manifeft, that this 
yehovdhy whom Mofes mzd^ hafte to wor- 
fhfp, could not be that jfehvahy whofe 
Face could not be fcen, whom no Man 
could fee and live ; but the Jehovah who 
Jol/owedthc Invifible Jehovah, and was pro- 
bably the fame Perfon with that God of 
Ifraely who was feen by Mofes and Aaron, 
and Nadab and Abihu, and the feventy El- 
ders of Ifrael : And who is called by God, 
in another Place, the Similitude, or Image, 
of Jehovah, For, fays Jehovah unto the 
People of Ifrael, with my Servant Mofes 
will I /peak Mouth to Mouth ; and (9) the 
Similitude of Jehovah Jhall he behold, 

LXin. Now this Jehovah, or this Simi-f 
litude, Image, or Reprefentative of Jeho- 
vah, which Mofes beheld, is manifeftly the 
fame Perfon with that Guardian Angel of 
Ifrael, who had fo often appeared already, 
and fpoken to Abraham, Jacob, and Mofes, 

(9) Numb. xii. 7, 8, 


An Essay 07i Spirit. 71 

in the Name and Pcrfon of 'Jehovah ; bc^\ 

caufe it was on this very Account that Mo- 

f$s defired oF God to fhew , him his Glory, 

that he might know the Perfon who was to 

condu6l the Ijraelites into the promifed 

Land. For thus it is that Mofes mtrodiU.- 

ceth his Requeft. ( i ) yhd Mofes [aid unA 

to Jehovah, fee thou jayeji unto me, bring 

up this People : And thou haft not let me 

know whom thou wilt fend with me. — Now 

therefore I pray thee, ij I have found Grace 

in thy Sight, Jhew me now (2) thy Way;' 

that I may know thee : And confider that 

this Nation is thy People. And jEHovAHi 

jaid, I will do this Thing that thou hafl Jpo-^ 

ieny &c. And he Jaid^ thdu canjl not Jee - 

(0 Exod.xxxXn. 12, ^c. 

(2) The original Word ^"»i is ufed in a great Variety 
of Senfes in the Old Teftament ; the Septuagint Verfion 
renders it in this Place "Liavlov, thyfdf. And in the fame 
Senfe it probably is, that Da^'iJ, praying tojeho-uah, fays, 
God be merciful unto us, and blefs us ; and caufe thy Face to ' 
fhine upon us : That THy Way (or Thou) may be knonvn up- 
on Earth, thy facing Health among all Nations, Pfal. Ixvii. 
z. And in Ffal. Ixxvii. I3. He fays, tht Way, O God, 
(or Thoii) is in the SanSIuary. And hence probably it is, that 
the Prophet Amos calls the God or Idol of Beerjheba, the 
Way of Beerlheba, A?n. viii. 14. 

' my 

71 An Essay on Spirit. 

my Faee ; for there Jhall no Man fee my 
Face and live. But it Jhall come to pajs, 
while my Glory pajjeth by, that I will put 
thee in a Clijt of the Rock ; a?td will cover 
thee with mine Hand^ while I pafs by ; and 
I will take away mine Hand^ and thou Jhalt 
fee what followeth me : But my Facefmll not. 
be feeUi &c. ^ 

LXIV. So that this Being which follow- 
ed fehovah, this Way, this Glory of yeho"^ 
Vdh, whom the invifible fehovah proclaim-, 
ed to be fehovah as well as himfelf, is ma-., 
nifeftly that Angel, who was appointed by 
God to conduct the Ifraelites into the pro- 
mifed Land. And therefore God faith to 
Mofes, in another Place, (3) Behold I fend 
an Angel before thee to keep thee in the Way, 
and to bring thee ijito the Place which I have 
prepared. Beware of him, and obey his 
Voice, provoke him not, for he will not par^ 
don your T^rajifgrefjiom ; for my Name 
IS IN HIM. That is, behold I fend an 

(3) Exod. xxiii. 20, z\. 


An Essay on Spirit. 73 

Angel before thee a(5ling in my Stead, and 
by my Authority j beware of him, and 
obey his Voice, provoke him not, for / 
have proclaimed him Jehovah ; and, as he 
adts by my Authority, and my Power is de- 
legated unto him, as my Similitudes Image, 
or Reprefentative, he will not pardon your 
Tranfgreflions, for my Name of 'Jehovah 
is in him. 

LXV. And hence It comes to pafs, that 
this Second Jehovah is in a particular 
Manner diftinguifhed by the Appellation 
of the God of Ifrael, the Jehovah of 
ZioTif and the Jehovah of the Jews. For 
thus the Prophet Hofea^ fpeaking by 
Authority from God the great Jehovah 
faith, (4) But I will have Mercy on the 
Houfe of Judah, and will fave them by 
Jehovah their God. And Zechariah 
the Prophet, fpeaking of the fame People, 
faith, (5) I will jirengthen them in Jeho- 
vah, and they Jhall walk up and dou^n in 

(4) tiof. i. 7. 

(5) Ze(h. X. \%, 


/4 ^^^ Eassy on Spirit. 

HIS 1^ AM -£., faith Jehovah. Not in my 
Isfame, but in his Name, faith the invifible 
yehovab ; that is, in the Name of the God 
of Ifrael, whom they had feen. And, in 
another Place, the fame Prophet faith, (6) 
Sing and rejoice, O Daughters of Zion ; 
Jor^ loy I come, and 1 will dwell in the 
^Midji of thee^ jaith Jeho v ah : And many 
Nations fiall be joined to Jehovah in that 
Day, and Jldall be my People : A?id I will 
dwell in the Midfi of thee, and thou Jhalt 
know that //^d- Jehovah of Hosts hath 
fent me unto thee. Where the Jehovah of 
Zion is plainly diilingnifhed from the Jeho' 
'vah of Hofts, and acknowledgeth himfelf 
to be fent by him. 

LXVI. The only Difficulty In this Cafe 
is this, that the Jehovah of Zion, though 
In this one Place he acknowledgeth him- 
felf to be fent by the Jehovah oj Hojls, yet 
in other Places this Jehovah of Zion, or 
the Angel which appeared unto Abraham 

(6) Zech. ii» lO, lu 


An Essay on Spirit. 75 

xind Jacoby and MofeSy does not always de- 
clare that he is deputed, and fpeaks by the 
delegated Authority of the Jehovah of 
Hofts ; which is the general Meaning of the 
Phrafe of fpeaking m the ISJame of any one ; 
but actually and literally fpeaks in his own 
Name, and calls himfelf Jehovah^ and faith, 
/ am the God of Abraham ; and / am the 
God of Bethel ; and / brought thee out of 
the Land of Egypt, ^c ; and pofitivcly pro- 
hibits Mofes and the Children of Ifrael from 
worfhipping any other God but himfelf: 
T^hou, fays he, foalt have none other Gods 
before me* Thereby feeming to forbid even 
the Worlhip of the Supreme fehovah, the 
Jehovah of Hojis, 

LXVII. In Anfwer to which it is to be 
obferved, that the Hebrews were far from 
being explicit and accurate in their Style, 
but left great Room for the (7) Imagina- 

(7) Any one that does but open the Englijh Bible, and 
obierve the Number of Words that are inferted in Italic 
Characters, none of which are in the Original, will imme- 
diately perceive the Truth of this AfTertion. 

L 2 tion 

f6 An Essay 07i Spirit. 

tion of the Reader to fupply, and fill up the 
Deficiencies ; and that it was very cufto- 
mary for one Perfon to fpeak in the Name 
and Charadler of another Perfon, without 
making the leafl: Mention of the other Per- 
fon, in whofe Name the Words were fpo- 
ken. Thus It is allowed by the univerfal 
Confent of all Antiquity, as well 'Jews as 
Chrijiians, that in the fecond Pfalm, David 
is there fpeaking of the Mejfiahy and yet 
the whole Pfalm is delivered In the Perfon 
and Character of David himfelf. Why^ 
fays he, do the Heathen rage, and the Peo- 
ple imagine a vain Thing, 'The Kings of 
the Eart^ fet themfelves, and the Riders 
take Council together againfi Jehovah, and 
againjl his anointed. He that fitteth in 
Heaven P^all laugh ; Jehovah jhall have 
them in Deriflon. Then Jhall he fpeak unto 
thetn in his Wrath , and vex them in his fore 
Difpleafure. Tet have I fet my King upon 
my holy Hill of Sion. I will declare the 
Decree, Jehovah hath faid unto me, 
Thou art my Son, this Day have I begotten 


An Essay on Spirit. 77 

thee. AJk of me^ and I will give thee the 
Heathen Jor thine Inheritance^ and the ut- 
termofl Parts of the Earth for thy Pojfef- 

LXVni. Now it is plain, that the De^ 
cree here fpoken of, though it was deliver^ 
ed unto Davidy yet the Purport thereof 
was not promifed to Davidy but to fomc 
one of the Seed of David, 2 ^am. vii. 
12, 14, 16, of whom God faid, / will 
he his Father, and he pall be my Son. And 
yet David faith, when fpeaking of this 
Decree : / will declare the Decree, Jeho- 
vah hath faid unto me, Thou art my 
Son, this Day have 1 begotten thee. And 
what is further remarkable, is, that it was 
not yehovah, but Nathan the Prophet, 
whq fpake to David by Authority from 

LXIX. And indeed nothing is more comr 
mon than for Prophets and Angels to fpeak 
authoritatively in their own Name, without 
ijitroducing their Speech with an explanatory 


78 Alt Essay on Spirit. 

Preface, mentioning the Perfon in. whofe 
Name they fpeak. Thus the Prophet Ifaiah 
faith, (8) T.he Word that Ifaiah the Son of 
Amos Jaw concerning Judah a?id Jerufalem 
— (9) For behold the Lord, the Jehovah 
OF Hosts doth take away from Jerufalem 
and from Judah the Stay and the Staffs 
ficc. — And then fome Verfes afterwards, he 
faith. And I will give Children to be their 
Princes, and Babes [hall rule ever them, 
&c. Where it is manifeft, that the Prophet 
ipeaks in this laft Place in the firfl: Perfon, 
in his own Name, without inferting the 
Words, and "Jehovah faid unto me, which 
feem neceflary to have been inferred, in or- 
der to make his Words intelligible, if he 
intended they fhould be underftood of Je- 
hovah , and not of himfelf ; but that he 
knew very well the Jews would, of them- 
felves, fupply the Deficiency. 

(8) I/ai\\. 1. 

(9) Jfai iii. i,—'4. 

LXX. In 

An Essay on Spirit. 79 

LXX. Li like Manner, in the Revela- 
tion of St. yohn, though the Apoftle de- 
clares, that it was delivered to him by an 
Angel, and calls it (i) T^he Revelation of 
Jesus Christ, which God gave unto 
him, to Jloew unto his Servants Takings which 
mud fiortly come to pafs ; and he fent and 
Jignijied it by his Angel unto his Servant 
John : Yet through the whole Book this 
Angel fpeaks indifferently In the firft Per- 
fon, either when he fpeaks in the Name of 
God the Father, or in the Name of "Jefm 
Chrifi, or in his own Name. Thus, Rev. 
i. 10. St. yohn [siys, I was in the Spirit 
on the Lord'j-Day, and heard behind me a 
great Voice, as of a 1'rumpet, faying, 1 am 
Alpha and Omega, the firft and the lali^ 
&c. Now this Voice was undoubtedly the 
Voice of the Angel, who was fent to teftify 
unto him ; and yet he fpeaks in the firft 
Perfon, faying, I am Alpha and Omega : 
And Verfe 13, when he turned to fee the 

(0 Riv. \, 1, 
: Voice 

So Aft Essay on Spirit* 

Voice that fpake with him, he fays, (2) 
Aiid when I Jaw him, 1 fell at his Feet as 
dead : And he laid his "Right -hand upon me^ 
faying unto me. Fear not : I am the Firji 
and the Lafl ; / am he that liveth and was 
dead ; and behold I am alive for evermore. 
Where it is manifeft that this Angel fpeaks 
at once both in the Name of God the Fa- 
ther, and of God the Son ; becaufe he calls 
himfelf Alpha and Omega, and yet declares 
he was once dead. And yet, Chapter iii. 14, 
This fame Angel fpeaks only in the Name 
of Jefus Chrijii faying, T'hefe Things faith 
the Amen, the faithful and true Witnefs^ 
THE Beginning of the Creation 
OF God : Which is the Charader given 
by St. Faul of 'Jefus Chriftt who ftiles him 
(3 ) the Fir ^ -horn of the whole Creation, 

LXXI. However, towards the Clofe of 
the whole Revelation, St. fohn fays, (4) 

(2) Rev. i. 17. 

(3) npJIoToxo; wacTfl? xlicrf*)?, i. tf> The Firft-bom of the 
whole Creation ; and not as we tranflgte it, the firjl-born of 
t^very Creature, Col. i. 15. 

{4) ^ij. xxii. 8, ^i. 

I Johif 

Jl?i Essay on Spirit. 8i 

/ John faw thefe T'hings and heard theniy 
tind when 1 had heard and feen^ I fell down 
to worfhip before the Feet of the jingel 
which fiewed )»€ thefe things. I'hen faith 
he unto mi^ fee thou do it not ; for 1 am thy 
Fellow-Servant, and of thy Brethren the 
Prophets, and of them which keep the Say-" 
ings of this Book : JVoffkip God. And he 
faith unto me, Seal not the Sayings of the 
Prophecy of this Book ; for the Time is at 
Hand. — And behold I come quickly ; and my 
Reward is with me, to ginje to every Man ac^ 
cording as his Works Jhall be. lam Alpha and 
Omega, ihi Beginning and the End ; the 
Firfl and the Lafi. — / Jefus have fent mi?i^ 
Angel to teflijy unto you thefe Takings in the 
Churches. I am the Root and the Offspring 
of David, and the bright and the Morning- 

LXXn. Where it is inanifeft, that this 
Angel who had reflifed Worfhip and Ado- 
ration, and had declared himfelf to be 
a created Being, the Fellow-Servant of 
J^huy and of his Brethren the Prophets ; 

M yet 

8i An Essay on Spirit. 

yet becaufe he was fent by 'Jefm to teftify 
that Revelation, (5) which was given unto 
'jedis by God, he therefore fpeaks indiffe- 
rently in the firft Perfon, 7, either when he 
fpeaks in his own Perfon, in the Perfon of 
yefus, or in the Perfon of God the Fa- 
ther. So that it ihould feem no extraordi- 
nary thing to find that exalted Angel whom 
God had proclaimed 'Jehovahy Ipeaking alio 
in the firft Perfon, and faying, / am that 
anjy or, I am the God of Abraham, or the 
God of Bethel, &c. 

LXXIIL This however is manifeft from 
the Whole taken together, that the Jews 
had great Foundation in the Scriptures of 
the Old Teflament for their Opinion of a 
Aiuiipoi Ggo$, a Second or Secondary God, 
that is, one who acSted by a deputed Power 
from the Supreme God ; which Philo calls 
the Archangel with many Names : For it 
appears he was therein called, ^he great 
Frince which jiandeth for the Children of 

(5) ^-v. i. I.- ,.. 1j/,^ . 

Ifrael ; 

An Essay on Spirit. 83 

Ifracl ; The Word of God ; T.he Wijdom of 
God ; T'he Similitude, or Image, of God ; 
and Jehovahy or the Name of God. 

LXXIV. Now then let us fee what 
Foundation there Is in the Scriptures of the 
Old Teftament for the Opinion of a third 
Perfon, whom the Jews 'ATroyeia^evaiv, 
paid divine Honours to. And here it may 
be obferved, that it hath been already iliew- 
ed, that two of the Angels, which appear- 
ed to Abraham in the Similitude of Men, 
were each called by the Name of yeho~ 
vab : (6) For as the one which remained 
converfing with Abraham, while the other 
two went towards Sodom, was called yeho- 
vah, fo alfo Is one of the two Angels which 
went to deftroy Sodom, called Jehovah alfo ; 
For, fays Mofes, Jehovah rained upon 
Sodom and Gomorrah Brim/io?2e and Fire 
from Jehovah oa/ 0/ Heaven* 

(6) See Sea. LVI. 

M 2 LXXV. It 

84 '^^T^ Essay on Spirit. 

LXXV. It is likewife to be obfervcd, that 
in the Prophecy of (7) Zecha?'iahy that 
Prophet, in declaring a Vifion which he 
had feen of a Candlejflick, with two OHve- 
Trees by it, fays, that an Angel talked with 
him, and Zechariah faid unto him. What 
be thefe two Olive-Threes upon the right Side 
of the Candlejlick and upon the left Side 
thereof 1 And 1 anfwered again and faid wi- 
to him J what be thefe two Olive- Branches, 
which through the golden Pipes, empty the 
golden Oil out of themfelves ? And he an* 
Jwered me and faid, T^hefe are the two 


Lord of the whole Earth. 

LXXVI. Now it is manifefl:, that that 
Angel, whofe Portion is Ifrael, is by the 
Prophet Ifaiah called the Angel of God's 
Prefence. For, fays that Prophet, (8) / 
^vill mention the loving Kindnefs ^ Je-' 

(:t) Zech. iv. I, ^c, 
(8) Ifai. IxiJi. 7^ 9. 


An Essay on Spirit. 8y 

faovAH, and his great Goodnefs towards 
the Houfe of Ifrael. — In all their Af" 
jliBions he was aJiiBed, and the Angel. 
OF HIS Presence faved them. And as 
this Angel, or great Prince which Jlandeth 
for the Children of Ifrael, is by the Prophet 
"Daniel diftinguifhed by the Name of Mi- 
chael ; fo It may be further proper to take 
Notice, that there is another Angel named 
by a particular Name in the Scriptures of 
old Teflament, who is called (9) Gabriel \ 
which Gabriel, according to St. (i) Liikey 
called himfelf alfo the Angel that ftandeth 
in the Prefence of God. So that here are 
plainly two Angels, one of which, for 
Diftinclion-fake, is called Michael, and the 
other Gabriel, which are defcribed as {land- 
ing in the Prefence of God, or, as Zecha- 
riah cxprefTeth it, which Jlafid by the Lord 
of the whole Earth. As a Type of which, 
according to (2) Philo Judaus, it was, 

fg) As MfW/ fignifies 'Cat Similitude of God; fo GahritI 
fignifies, the Stre?jgth, or Pon/jer of God. 
(1) Luk. i. ig. 
\i) Phil. Wit. Mofs, lib. iii. p. 669. Edit. Franc. i6gi. 


2 6 ^n Essay on Spirit. 

that at the Building of the Tabernacle, God 
diredled only two Cherubim to be placed 
over the Mercy^Seat in the Holy of Holies. 

LXXVn. And as it appears, that the 
Archangel Michael is that Perfon who is cal- 
led the Second Efjence by the Jews^ fo upon 
Enquiry, we fhall find that the Angel Ga^ 
briel has a very good Title towards being 
confidered as that Third Ejjencey or Being, 
to which the yews paid divine Honours. 
For the Opinion of the Jewsy with Regard 
to this Third Being, was, (3) that <* after 
*^ the Second Eflfence comes the Holy Spirit 
** which they place in this royal Dignity, 
** and Degree of Principality, becaufe it is 
^* the Will of the great Architedt to ap- 
^* point him to the Principality of thofe in- 
** ferior Beings, who may want his Ailif- 
" tance. Who therefore, obtaining the 
** third Place, confers on thofe, who are 
<* inferior to him, thofe excellent Virtues 
" which he himfelf received from ano- 

(3) Bufeh. Prjep. Evang. lib. vii. cap. 15. 

«< ther. 

An Essay on Spirit. 87 

*' ther, to wit, from the divine hogos^ his 
** Better and Superior, whom we before 
*' fald was the Second to the fupreme, 
** unbegotten and almighty God." So fays 
Eufebius, ** All the Hebrew Divines, after 
** that God, who is over all, and after his 
** firft-born Wifdom, pay divine Worfhip 
*' to the third and holy Power, which they 
** call the holy Spirit, by which they them- 
*^ felves are illuminated when they are di- 
** vinely infpired.'* 

LXXVin. Now It IS manifeft, that the 
Angel Gabriel was employed in the Adml- 
niflration of this Office, that is, in the il- 
luminating of thofe who were divinely in- 
Ipired ; which the Prophet Xechariah me- 
taphorically exprefleth, by emptying through 
golden Pipes y the golden Oyl out of themfehes. 
Since it was undoubtedly for this Purpofe 
that Gabriel was fent to the Prophet (4) Da^ 
niel, to make him under (land the Vijion : And 
to give him Skill and Underjianding* And 

(4) Dan, viii. i6. ix. 21,22. 


88 An Essay on SpiRit. 

therefore, it is probable, that this Angel 
Gabriel was that holy Spirit who was em- 
ployed by God in illuminating the reft of the 
Prophets of Old, and who is fo often men- 
tioned in the Scriptures of the Old Tefta-^ 
ment, under the Name of the holy Spirit^ 
the Spirit of God, or the Spirit oj Jehovah. 
For thus the Prophet (5) Nehemiah pofi- 
lively faith, that Jehovah teftified againft 
the Wicked by his Spirit in his Pro- 
phets, And the Prophet (6) Zechariah 
faith, 7hey made their Hearts as an Ada- 
fnant Stone, left they fiould hear the Law, 
and the Words which the ]^noY kk of 
Hosts hath sent by his Spirit in 
the former Prophets, 

LXXIX. Which Words plainly pr6vc 
this Spirit to have been an Intelligent Agent, 
feparate and diftincl from God, becaufe he 
wzsfent by him. For though Men may be 
faid to be infpired, or actuated, by the 
Spirit of God, when God is pleafed to in- 

(5) Nehem. \x. 63. 

(6) Zecb, vii. 12. 


An Essay o?t Spirit. 89 

fpire or influence them by Virtue of his 
own ahiiighty Power, without deputing 
any other Spirit to do it : Yet it is ma- 
nifeft that God cannot fend himfelf ; be- 
caufe thofe Terms imply a Contradidlion. 
And therefore the Prophet Ijaiah is faid to 
have been Jait both by God and his Spirit. 
For, fays he, (7) and now 'Jehovah God, 
and his Spirit hath fent me. And in the 
Books of (8) Judges and Samuel y it is not 
faid, that it was Jehovah, but the Spi- 
rit oj Jehovah, which came upon Othoniel, 
and Gideon, and Jeptha, and Sampfon, anX 
Saul, and David, to ailif]: them in the Go- 
vernment of Ifrael, and the Execution of 
their Office. And the holy (9) David, 
in the penitential Pfalm which he compo- 
fed, on his Tranfgreflion with BathJJ:eba, 
beggs of Almighty God, not to take his 
HOLY Spirit jrom him \ but, fays he. 

(7) If at. xlviii. 16, 

(8) See Judg, iii. lo. vi. 34. xi. 29. xiii. 25. l Zam. x. 
6. xvi. 13. 

(9) PJal. li. II, 12, 13. 

N redore 

po An Essay on Spirit. 

rejlore me unto the Joy of thy Salvation^ 
and uphold me with thy FREE Spirit. 

LXXX. And therefore this holy Spirit Is 
fometimes fald to enter, into Men when it 
Infpired them. For thus the Prophet Eze- 
^;>/ declares, that the Spirit (i) entered in- 
to him when it [pake unto him. And the 
Prophet Ijdiahy fpeaking of Mofes^ faith, 
that (2) God put his holy Spirit within him. 
Which hkewlfe fliews this Spirit to have 
beeJi a feparate intcIHgent Agent, diftindt 
from God himfelf, becaufe it Is faid, that it 
was God who put this holy Spirit within 

LXXXI. And as it pleafed God that this 
holy Spirit jQiould fometimes manifeft its 
Abode in particular People by fome out- 
ward and vifible Token for the Sake of the 
By-Standers, that they might be obedient 
unto thofe Perfons upon whom it abode ; 

(i) Ezek. ii. 2. iii. 24: 
{2) J/ai. vi. 3. 


Ajt Essay on Spirit. 91 

therefore it Is, in the Language of the holy 
Scriptures, fometimes faid to re{i upon thofe 
on whom it was conferred. Thus, when 
God ordered Mojes to appoint feventy El- 
ders, who fhould aflifl him in the Dillribu- 
tion of Juflice, it is faid, that (3) "Jehovah 
came down in a Cloud, a7id /pake unto him^ 
and took of the Spirit that was upon him, 
and gave it to the feventy Riders ; and it 
cavie to pafsf that when the Spirit res- 
ted upon them, they prophefied and did 
not ceafe, 

LXXXII. Now it is obferved of Mofes^ 
that when he came the laft Time down 
from Mount Sinai^ (4) the Skin of his Face 
Jhone, fo that the People were afraid to 
come nigh him. It is therefore probable 
that this Manifeilation of the Spirit which 
was conferred on Mofes, and from him di- 
vided among the feventy Elders, was a 
kind of lucid Ihining Appearance which 
refted upon thejn as an outward and vifible 

(3) Numb. xi. 16, 25. 

(4) Exod. xxxiv. 29, 

N 2 Token 

pi An Essay on Spirit. 

Token of the inward AfTill-ance and Illumi^ 
nation t)f the llol'j Spirit, And therefore 
God alfo commanded hJcjh, \^4ien he ap- 
pointedy(?/2j//j for his bucceiTor, to (5) take 
Jofhua the Son of Nun, and fays he, tfooufiall 
lay fome of thine Honour upon him, that 
all the Congregation of the Children of 
Ifrael may be obedient : In like Manner, 
when Elifia was appointed SucccfTor to 
Elijah, It is faid, the Spirit of EHjah, or 
the Spirit which was on Elijah doth rest 
ON Eliflia. And they came to meet him, 
and bowed themfelves before him. 

LX>rXIII. But when this Holy Spirit was 
pleafed to make its Appearance, either in 
the Figure and Form of an Angel or Man, 
tlie Jews then 'ATroyeicc^evc-tv, paid divine 
Honours to it : As Daniel did to the Angel 
(6) Gabriel, when it appeared unto him in 
the Form of a Man ; for {aith he, (7) I was 
afraid and Jell upon my Face : As Ezekiel 

{5} Niim xxvii. 20. 

(6) Dan. viii. i6. ix. 21. 

(7) Dan. viii. 17. 


All Essay on Spirit. 93 

alfo did to the (8) holy Spirit y when it ap- 
peared unto him in (9) the Likenefs oj the 
Glory of Jehovah ; for fays he, When ( i ) / 
Jaw it 1 fell upon my Face. Whieh was the 
ufual Method of Proltration both with (2) 
him, and all the ancient (3) Prophets and 
Patriarchs, whenever they had any earnefl: 
Requeft to make to almighty God ; or when 
they apprehended that an Angel fent from 
God was fpeaking to them. 

LXXXIV. And indeed it feems but rea- 
(bnable, that befide the Refpedl which is 
due to this holy Spirit on Account of the 
Excellency of its own Nature, there fhould 
be a further Degree of Reverence and Re^ 
gard paid unto him, in Proportion to the 
Degree of Power or Authority over us, 
which is committed unto him from God : 
Since it is but jufl, that whatever Degree of 

(8) Ezek. ii . 2. iii. 24. 

(9) Ezek. i. 28. 

(i) Exek. i. 28. iii. 3. xliii. 3,4. xliv. 4. 

(2) Ezek. ix 8. xi. 13. 

(3) Gen. xvii. 3. Num. xvi. 22. xxii. 31. Jo/h. v. 14. 
See alfo Mat. xxvi. 39. Mar. xiv. 35. Though he firft 
kneeled down, Luke xxii. 41. 


p4- -^-^^ Essay on Spirit. 

Superiority the Almighty is pleafed to give 
to any one Being over others, there fhouid 
be a fuitable Degree of Submiffion and Obe- 
dience paid to that Being, in Proportion 
to the Extent of Authority delegated from 

LXXXV. Not that Angels as Angels 
have any Right to Worfhip or Adoration 
upon their own Account ; and therefore all 
(4) 'voluntary Hmjiilify and JVorJhip paid, 
even to the higheft Angel, out of our ov^-n 
Head, or without a Commiflion from God 
for fo doing, would be Idolatry : Which 
was the Reafon why that Angel who was 
fent from God to fhew the Revelation to 
St. yobiy reprimanded the Apoftle, when 
he (5) fell down to Worship before the 
peet of the Angel which fhewed him thefe 

things^ faying, fee thou do it not, Wor- 

Jhip God. Becaufe St. John feems to have 
paid this WorP:ip to the Angel on his own 
Account, without any Regard to the Au- 

14) CoL ii. 18. 
(5) Rtv. xxii. 8. 


An Essay on Spirit. 95 

thorlty by which he was fent ; which would 
have been Idolatry. But when Angels 
are commiflioned from God, with any 
Degree of Power over us, and are fent 
in his Name ; then it cannot be Idolatry, 
to pay them fuch a Degree of Adora- 
tion, as is prdportionate to the Autho- 
tity with which they are inverted : Becaufe 
fuch Adoration or Worfhip, not being paid 
them on their own Account, but on ac- 
count of the Authority which hath been de- 
legated unto them, terminates in the one on- 
ly and fupreme God. See Sedl. 1 13, 1 14- 

LXXXVI. Which Method of Reafoning 
may be purfued from the highefl: Degree of 
Worfhip, payable to the moft perfc(5i: Be- 
ing next to God, a6ling with the higheft 
Authority, which God is plcafed to commu- 
nicate or delegate, down to the lowed: De- 
gree of deference or Refpedl, which Reafon 
infl:ru<fts us, is proper to pay to fome of our 
own Fellow-Creatures, for the Prefervatioii 
of a due Subordination in Society : Since in 

» this 

9<5 An Essay on Spirit. 

this Senfe, it is, that (6) not only the Powers 
which be ordained of God ; but alfo that 
thofe Prophets and Judges of Ifrael (7) to 
whom the Word of God came^ are called 
Gods ; becaufe they fpoke by his Authority 
and a6tcd in his ftcad. 

LXXXVII. Which Doftrlne of the "Jews 
with Regard to God the Father, God the 
Son, and God the holy Spirit, feems there- 
fore not only to be fupported by the Doc- 
trine of the Old Teftament, but alfo recon- 
cilable to Rcafon ; fince if we do but re- 
fledl on the immenfe Diftance there is be- 
tween the imperfedl State of human Beings, 
and the infinite Perfedlion of Almighty 
God, we cannot but think that God fhould 
chufe to govern this Univerfe by a gradu- 
al Subordination of Beings, one fuperior to 
another ; rather than to be the fole Direc- 
tor or Governor of every the moil: minute 
Affair : Not that fuch a Government would 

(6) "Rom. xiii. I. 

(7) See Exod. xxii, 18. Pf. Ixxxli. i, 2, 6. Jchn x. 

n> 35- 

A?! Essay on Spirit. 97 

te troublefome to God, or that he would 
be unable to perform it, or that God can 
poflibly divefl: himfelf of the fupreme Au- 
thority, univerfal Infpectlon, and general 
Superintendehcy even of the minutell Tranf- 
acStion in the whole Creation : But becaufe 
it feems more confident with the divine 
Goodnefs and Wifdom, to employ the vari- 
ous Works of his Hands, in the Exercife 
of thofe Powers and Faculties with which 
he hath endowed them ; rather than perfon- 
ally and immediately to interpofe in the 
Condu(5t of thofe Tranfadtions, for which 
he hath created Numbers of Beings furnifh- 
ed with Abilities fufficicnt Co perform.- 

LXXXVin. It is likewife reafonable to 
believe that the fame Method of Govern- 
ment, which God hath ordained in this 
fublunary Globe, is carried on by a Kind of 
Analogy through the whole Creation. And 
that as the great Creator hath been pleafed 
to conftitute this World in fuch a Manner, 
as to require the Authority of fome Perfons 
prcfiding over others, in Families, in Towns, 
O in 

J? 8 jJn Essay on Spirit. 

m. Cities, in Provinces, in Kingdoms, In 
Empires ; fo probably in the great Expanfc 
of Spirits, there are Degrees of Superiori- 
ty analogous to thefe fublunaryDifpofitions ; 
which we have no better Method of ex- 
prefling, than by calling them in Allufion to 
the Things which we do know, (8) T'hroties, 
^ DotnimonSy FrincipalitieSi Powers. 

LXXXIX. And as this Dodlrine is re- 
concilable with the Scriptures of the Old 
_'Teftament, the Sentiments of the Jewi/h 
Divines, and with Reafon ; fo is it alfb 
w^ith the Scriptures of the New Teftament. 
For fays St. Paul ; (9) Though there be that 
are called Gods, whether in Heaven or Earth, 
(for there be Gods many and Lords many) 
yet to us there is but one God, the Father, 
vf whom are all Things, and we in him j 
and one Lord Jefus Chrifty by whom are all 
Things, and we by him. That is, there is biK 
one fupreme God, in Comparifon of whom 

(8) Col. i. i6. 

(^j Cor. viii. 5, 6. . 


An Essay mi Spirit. 99 

there IS (i) none other but he \ and with 
Regard to whom Jefus the Chrlft is only to 
be called hord and not God : The Fa- 
ther having given him a Name that is above 
every other Name, that every Tongue fiould 
confefs that Jefus Chri/l /i Lord to the 
Glory of God the Father. Phil. ii. 9, 11. 

XC. Which God the Father, as he is de- 
fcribed by Mofes under the Character of 
that God, (i) whofe Face cannot be feen ; 
J or no Man can fee him and live ; {q alfo St. 
Faul charadlerifes him as that God, who is 
(3) the blefj'ed and only Potentatey the 
King of Kings and Lord of Lords, who 
ONLY hath Immortality y dwellifig in the 
Light which no Man can approach unto, 
whom no Man hath or can see. 
And St. John fays, (4) No Man hath feen 
God any I'ime. Which one, 07ilx, invijible 
God cannot therefore poflibly be the farac 

(i) Mar. xii. 32. 

{2) Exod, xxxiii. 20, 23. 

{3) 1 Tim. vi. 15, 16. 

(4) Jakn'x. 18. vi. 46, ijohn'vf, 12. 

O 2 with 

loo An Essay 07i Spirit. 

V'ith that G(?^ who (5) ijoas 7namfelled in the 

XCI. Whence it appears, that here is a 
Diftlndlion made by the Apoftles between 
the Divinity of God the Father and of God 
the Son : And that although the Term of 
God^ as when we fay, there are Gods ma- 
ny, may be attributed to the Son, yet that, 
ftridlly fpeaking, as when we fay there is 
but one God, this Appellation is only to be 
attributed to Qod the Father ; and accord- 
ingly the Nicene Creed, as all the ancient 
Creeds did, begins with faying, I believe in one 
God the Father Almighty^ &c. And the Rea- 
fon alTigned for this Difl:in6i:ion by St. Paul 
is, becaufe God the Father is alone to be 
confidered as the (6) jirfi Cauf^ ; for, fays 
he, there is one God the Father, of whom 
ARE ALL things: and therefore God the 
Father is by the Son himfelf ftiled (7) the 
mly true God. For, fays he, when fpeaking 

(;;) I Tim. iii. i6. 
(6) See Sec% 3. 
(8) Jekn xvii. 3. 


An Essay on Spirit. ioi 

of the Father, thh is eternal Life, that they 
may know thee the only true God, 
' and Jejus Chrifi whom thou haji fent, 

\ XCn. As therefore the firfl: Self-exiftent 

Caufe of whom are all Things, can 
alone be properly called God, when the 
Title of God is given in the Scripture?: to 
any other Being but the Father, we are to 
underftand this, only as expreflive of fome 
God-like Power, which hath been given or 
communicated to that Being by God the 
Father. And accordingly Jehcvah faid un- 
to MofeSy w^hen he fent him to Pharaoh and 
communicated to him the Power of w^orking 
Miracles, (8) Thou [halt he to him ififiead 
tf God : Which he thus exprefleth in ano- 
ther Place, (9) fee 1 have made thee a God 
to Pharaoh. When all Power therefore in 
Heaven and Earth was given to the Son, 
he was made a God to thofe Beings over 
whom that Power was given, that is, over 

(8) Exod. iv. 16, 
{9) Exod, xvii. \. 


loz An Essay on Spirit. 

thofe Beings which inhabit this Heaven and 
this Earth, and over thofe only, fince it is 
manifeft at the fame Time, that he mufi: be 
excepted who did give this Power unto 
him ; and therefore St. Taul pofitively de* 
dares when fpeaking of the Son, that (i) 
when it is [aid all Thitjgs are put under hinzy 
it is manifeft that he is excepted, which did 
put all 'Things under him, and when all 
things jhall be fubdued unto him, then, 
fays he, Jhall the Son alfb, that is, even in 
his higheft State of exalted Glory, be fub* 
jeB unto him that did put all Things under 
him, that God may be all in all, 

XCIII. And as that fecondary Effence 
among the Jews whofe Portion was IJrael^ 
was by them called the Word and the Wif- 
dom of God : So it is undoubted that thefe 
Appellations were from thence transferred, 
by the Apoftles of Chrilt who were born 
and bred Jews, into the Chriftian Religi- 
on, and applied by them to Jefus the Chrifi", 

(0 I Cor. XV. 27, 2S. 


An Essay on Spirit. 103 

^\iO Is in the Scriptures of the New Tefta- 
ment called (i) the Word and the Wifdomcf 

XCIV. And as that fecondary EfTence 
Was by the yews called the Image of God, 
fo is the Lord Jefus Chrlft called in the 
Language of the New Teftament, (3) the 
Image of the invifible God : That is the 
vlfible Image, or delegated Reprefentatlve 
in Power of the Invifible God. For that 
this is the fcriptural Meaning of the Word 
Image, when applied to the Lnage of an 
invifible Being, feems plain from many Paf- 
fages, but in particular from that wherein it 
is faid, that Man was created (4) in the 
Image of God : Becaufe as foon as God is 
reprefented by Mofes as having faid, let 
us make Man in our Image after our Like^ 
nefs ; Then immediately follows, and let 
him have Dominion over the Fi/h of the Sea^ 

(2) John 5. I, 14, 1 Qr. u 24, 

(3) Co/, i. 15, 

(4) Gtn, i, 26, 27. 


I04 An Eassy on Spirit. 

and over the Fowls of the Air^ &c. And 
therefore the Arabic Verfion of the Bible 
renders this lafl: Sentence to this purpofe, 
that by the Image which God enobled, he 
created him to hdve Dominion. And the 
wife Son of Sirach obferves, that (5) the 
Lord created Men, and endued them with 
Strength^ by themfehes^ and made them ac- 
cording to his Image ; and put the Fear oj 
Man upon all FieJJjj and gave him Domini- 
on over Beajls and Fowls, And that this 
Word, '£i36wj/ Image, when applied to 
Perfons, was generally underftood to denote 
the one as being the Deputy or Reprefenta- 
tative of the other, in Power and Domi- 
minion, is plain from an Expreflion in 
Bafil upon this very Subject. Where he 
inanifeftly ufcth this Word to fignify a Vice-" 
roy : When in anfwer to this Obje6lion, 
But how tfjen, ij there are two dijiin6l Per- 
fons (in the Godhead) do we not 7nake two 
Gods 9 To which he anfwers, (6) W^y 

(5) Ecc/uf. xvii. 1, 3, 4- 

(6) "Oxi )3a<r»Xfu; ^EysI«^ ««» i t3 j2uo-i?,tui Ukui, Ken ov Jiy* 
y ${CTiMTi. Bafil. d$ fpir. fenc. C. 1 8. 


An Essay 07t Spirit. 105 

jiiil as a King J and the Deputy of a King, do 
not make two Kings, 

XCVi And as the Jews fuppofed their 
Logos to be the fame Pcrfon with that (7) 
Angel oj God's Prefencey who is reprefent- 
ed in the Old Teftament, as being the 
Guardian Angel of the Children of I/rael, 
fo alfo do the Scriptures of the New Tefla- 
mcnt fuppofe their Logos, or the Lord Jefus 
Chrift, to be that very Angel, who brought 
Redemption to Jfrael ; and therefore St. 
Panlj fpeaking ot the Deliverance of the 
Ijraelites from their Egyptian Bondage, 
faith ; (8) Moreover Brethren I would not 
have you ignorant^ how that all our Fathers 
were under the Cloud, and all paffed through 
the Sea ; and were all baptized unto JNIofes 
in the Cloud, and in the Sea ; and did all 
eat the fame fpiritual Meat ; and did all 
drink the fame fpiritual Dr'ink : For they 
drank of that fame fpiritual Rock that foU 
lowed them, amd that Rock was 

(7) Ex(.d. xxiii. 20, 21. xxxiii. 2. AW. xx. 16. 

(8) 1 Cor. X, 1—9. 

P Christ 

10(5 An Essay on Spirit. 

Christ. He alfo faith, that by thdr 
Mifconducl hi the Wildernefs, they temp- 
ted Chriji, and were therefore deftroyed 
of Serpents. And in his Epidle to the (9) 
Hebrews, he attributes the Perfeverance of 
Mofes in quitting Fharaoh\ Court, and rc- 
Eifing to be called the Son of PharaoFs 
Daughter, to his Dread of the Reproach of 

XCVL And as the fews held their Lo* 
gos to ha\'C been in the Beginning with 
God ; and to be ^iu\z^ov ^iov, a fecond God : 
So alfo do the Scriptures of the New Tef- 
tament, acknowgledge their Logos^ or the 
Lord Jefus, to be called ( i ) Emanuel, which 
being interpreted is, God with us. He is 
therefore frequently, in the Language of the 
NevvTeftaincnt, fpoken of as fuch. Thus 
fohn the Evangelift pofitively fays, that 
(2) the PFord was God. And St. Paul 

(9) Heh. XI. 26. 

(1) Mat. i. 23. 

(2) Jcbn i. I. 


An Essay 07t Spirit. 107 

calls him, (3) God manifefted in the Flejh, 
And Sr. T-homas, when fpcaking to him, 
fully and pofitivcly callcth him, (4) my Lord 
and my God, 

XCVII. But then thcfe Scriptures are in 
other Places very expreflive, with Regard 
to the Superiority of God the Father, over 
God the Son : Thus St. Peter, in that 
Speech which he makes to the yews, A5ii 
ii, 33, where he is applying a Paflage, 
out of the 1 1 cth Pfalm, to our Saviour, 
(ays, " For David is not afcended into 
*' the Heavens : But he faith himfelfi, 
** The Lord faid unto my Lord, fit thou 
** on my Right Hand, until I make thine 
** Enemies thy Footftool." 'T'herefore, fays 
St. Peter, let all the Houjk of Ifrael know a/- 
furedly, that God hath (5) made that fame 
yefus whom ye crucified, both Lord and 
Chrifi, ' Which ihews, that the Son could 
not have been from all Eternity co-e<^ual to 

(3) 1 Tim. iii. i6. 

(4) Jchnx>i. 28. 

P 2 the 

io8 An Essay on Spirit. 

the Father, fince the Father could not have 
made him either Lord or Chrift, if he had 
no Superiority over him. And according- 
ly, St. Faiil appHes that Text of Scripture 
to Jefus Chrifl, which David maketh ufc 
of in the Pfahns, when he faith, (6) Thy 
Throfie^ O God, is forever and ever; a 
Sceptre of Righteoufhefs is the Sceptre of 
thy Kingdom : I'hoti ha/i loved Right eouf7tefs 
and hated Iniquity ; therefore God, even 
THY God, hath anointed thee 'with the Oil 
of Gladnefs above thy Fellows, In which 
PalTage, though Chrifl: is undoubtedly called 
God, yet the Superiority of God the Father 
over this God, is manifcftly preferved ; be- 
caufe he is called even his God. And the 
Lord Jefus Chrifl, when he was departing 
out of this Life, not only (7) offered up 
Prayers and Supplications unto the Father, 
as unto him that was able to fave him 
from Death j but alfo (8) cried with a 

(6) Heh i. 8. 

(7) Heb. V. 7. 

(8) ETreirci. 


A71 Essay on Spirit. 109 

hud Voice, faying, my God, my God, 
iiohy hall thoujorfaken me ? 

XCVIII. I am not ignorant, that in or- 
der to invalidate this Argument, it is faid, 
that this lail: Expreflion was fpoken only in 
Regard to his human Nature, with Refpe^ 
to which, he was undoubtedly inferior to 
God the Father ; But in anfwer to this, it 
is to be obferved, that in the firft Paifage 
here alluded to in the 1 1 oth Pfalm, our Sa- 
viour is there called hord, and yet yeho- 
vah IS faid by St. Peter, to have made him 
both Lord, and Chrifi. And in the fecond 
Paflage here quoted, the Pfalmiji fpeaks of 
of him as God, yet at the fame Time de- 
clares God the Father to be his God. 
And the fame Method of fpeaking, is con- 
continued in the Scriptures, not only while 
he was here in this World, fubjedl to Mor- 
tality ; but after he had overcome Death, 
and the Grave, even after his Refurredti- 
on ; at which Time, he alfo acknowledges 
God the Father to be his God : For when 
Ma?')' would have approached imto him, 


I lo j^7t Essay o?t Sfirit. 

he faid, (9) l.ouch me noty or, do not ftay 
to touch or mind me at prefent, for I am 
7Kt yet afcended unto my Father ; but go to 
my Brethren, and fay unto them, 1 ajcend 
unto my Father y and your Father , unto 
MY God, and your God. And the 
Apoftle Faul in fpeaking of our Lord Jefus 
Chrift, even after his Afcenfion, after his 
Exaltation, after he had been feated (i) 
at the Right Ha?id of God, far above all 
Principality, and Power, and Might, and 
Dominion^ (peaks of God the Father, as 
ftill being his God. For fays he, (2) Blef- 
fed be the God and Father of our Lord Jefus 
Chrijl, And again, he faith to the Ephe'^ 
Jians, Wherefore, I ccafe not to give 
Thanks for you, that the God of our Lord 
fejus Chriji, the Father of Glory, may 
give unto you the Spirit of Wifdom. And 
in the Revelation of St. John, the Apofllc 
Ipeaking of Jefus, faith, (3) who hath tnade 

(9) John XX. 17. 

(1) Eph. i. 20, 21. 

(2) Eph. i. 3. 

(3) T« 6e« xai vaJft aJl5. Rev. i, 6. 


An Essay on Spirit. iit 

m Kinp and Priefi^s to his God and 

XCIX. And indeed the whole Conduct 
and Behaviour and Dodlrine of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift, while he was in this World, 
was correfpondent thereto ; for he not only 
fyeaks of the Superiority of God the Fa- 
ther in general Words, as when he fays, in 
e'xprefs Terms, (4) the Fafhet^ is greater 
than I ; And again, the Father is greater 
than all : But acknowledges that his whole 
Condu6t, not only while he was in this 
W^orld, but before he came into it, before 
he had taken human Nature upon himfelf, 
was in Submiflion to the Will and Com- 
mands of God. For he acknowledges in 
numberlefs Places, that it w^as the Father 
who Jent him, and gave him a Command- 
merit what to do. (5) jR?r, fays he, Imufi 
work the Work of hi?n that sent me-, and 
again, he fays, The Father which seist me ^ 

(4) Jo^" xiv- 28. X. 29. 

{?) John ix. 4. xii. 49. xiv, 31, ^c. i^e. 


Hi An Essay Q7t Spirit. 

he GAVE ME A Commandment, isohat 
I fiouldfay, and what I Jhould JpeaL And 
again, j4s the Father gave me Com- 
mandment fo do L We may therefore 
fairly argue, as our Saviour himfelf does 
upon another Occafion, that (6) as the 
Servant is not equal to his Lord, neither is 
be that is Jent equal to him that fent him. 
He therefore alfo acknowledged, that all 
the Power he was poiTciled of, not only na- 
tural but fupernatural, was received from the 
Father, and was (7) given unto him. And 
this not only while he was upon Earth, 
while he was clogged and fettered with the 
Shackles of Mortality : But even after his 
Refurredlion, and Afcenfion, and Exaltati- 
on, he declares, that all the Power which 
he had in Heaven and Earth, was (8) gi- 
ven unto him of the Father. And fome 
Years after that, St. Paul in his Epiftle to 
the (9) CorinthianSy faith, But I would 

(6) John xiii. 1 6. 
{7) John V. 26. xvii. 2, 7, 8, 9, II, ^f. ^V. 

(8) Matth. xxviii. 18. 

(9) I Corinth, xi. 3. 


-^;?^ Essay ^;^ Spirit. 113 

have you know, that the Head of every 
Man is Clyriji ; a7id the Head of the Woman 
is the Man ; and theHeadof Christ 
IS God. 

C. And as Mofes was commanded by 
God to obey the Voice of the Angel, which 
he fent to keep him in the Way ; and to 
provoke him not, becaufe his Name was in 
him ; fo the Lord Jefus Chrift declares, 
that the Honour which is due unto him is 
on the Father's Account ; that is, becaufe 
he was fent from the Father : For, fays 
he, (2) T^he Father hath committed all 
'Judgment to the Son, that all Men fjould 
Honour the Son, even as they Honour the 
Father : And then he adds the Reafon, 
For, he who honoureth not the Son^ honour- 
eth not the Father which fent him. 

CI. It is likewife very remarkable, that 
in this Place, as well as in Exodus xxiii. 
21, where God ordereth Mofes and the 

(2) fohn V. 22, 23. 

Q^ Ifraclites 

114 An Ess AV on S?iK\r» 

J/raelites to obey the Angel, which was 
fent in his Name, the Incitement offered 
for honouring the one, as well as obeying the 
other, is the Power of 'Judgment^ that was 
committed unto them. For, fays God to 
Mofcs, beware of him, obey his Voice, pro- 
'uoke htm not, for he will not pardon your 
Iranfgreljions. And in the New Tefta- 
mcnt, our Saviour obferves, that all Judg- 

ishat all Men fhould Honour the Son^ even as 
they Honour the Father, 

CII. It is a Remark made by Sir Ifaac 
Newton, that the Worfhip which is due 
from Man to God, is on Account of the 
Dominion he hath over him. For, fays 
he, ** (3) God is a relative Term, which 
** has Reference to Subjects, and the Word 
** Deity, denotes the Dominion of God, 
*' not over his own Body (as the ancient 
*' Philofophers imagined, who called God 
<' the Soul of the World,) but over Sub- 

(3) Neivt. Prin. SchoK Gener. 

** jeas." 

An Essay on Spirit. i i 5 

*• jedls.'* And again, he faith, " Wc ar- 
** rive at the Knowledge of God, by con- 
** fidering his Properties and Attributes ; 
** by enquiring into the wife Formation and 
*' Conftitution of all T'hin;2:s ; and fearch- 
** ing into their final Caufes ; but w^e VVor- 
** fhip and Adore him on Account of his 
*' Dominion." So that the Son becomcth 
our God, not {o much on Account of his 
having been employed in our Creation, and 
that by him God created the JVorlds^ as be- 
caufe all yudgment is committed unto him^ 
this being the great Obligation of all Duty : 
There being no Reafon for Men to lay 
themfelves under any Reflraint, in obeying 
or difobeying the Commands of any Being, 
which hath no Power over them. 

Cni. Now the Reafon why Almighty 
God was pleafed to commit this Power of 
Judgment unto the Son, is alfo afligned ; 
for, fays our Lord Jefus, (4) I'he Father 
hath given to the Son Authority to execute 

(4) Jshn V. 26, 27. 

0^2 Judgment) 

ii6 Aft Essay on Spirit. 

Judgment J becaufc be is the Son of Man : 
lliat is, as a Reward for having taken hu- 
man Nature upon him. For, upon the Fall 
of Adattiy this Son of God, being willing 
to undertake the Redemption of Mankind J 
(5) he was accordingly (6) anoin rEi) of 
Cody for to do what/oever his Hand^ and 
his Council predetermined to be done. That 
is, he was (7) anointed to do and to fufFer, 
whatfocver k Ihould pleafe God for him to 
do or to fuffer. And for an Encourage- 
ment in which Undertaking, God \^ as plea- 
fed to propofe to this his anointed Son, that 
on the IVrlormance ot fiich Things as God 
iliould appoint for him to do, he fhould be 
exalted to (8) foy and Glory. 

(0 ^<'^i iv. 27, 28. 

(6) lionet' called the Mfjf$*bt which literally fignifics the 

{-}) Or nppoiiitfd This Term of /7»o/«//»jf bcinc; made 
lift' of. inlU'.nl of /»/'/>//;/.•■«!;, in Coinpli;iiicc with tlir hii- 
nmu Ciitlom of niioiu/vtg IVrfons, whon they were appoirt- 
tfJ to the Adtuiiiillnitioii of particular OHict-s, Inch as ci- 
ther King, Priijl, or Prophet. Sec i S.ini xiii. I. 2 Sam. 
ii. 7. F.xo^ xxix. 7. J/oi. Ixi. I. 

(ii) Ihh. xii. 2. 1 P(t. i. u. 

CIV. When 

Jin Ej?sAY on Spirit. i 17 

CIV. When thcrcfbrc, in ihc Fulnrfs oF 
Tinu', It plcalcd Oo\\ to fend forth his Son, 
wiio being (9) in the Vorm of God never- 
thclcfs divclK\i himlcK of tluir (ilory vvliich 
iic had with the Father before the World 
was, and ( i ) camt' iloivn from Heaven^ not 
to do his own l^yUl^ hut the fVi// of him 
that fent him ; (2) Hhc Spirit liaving /£•///- 
fied beforehand the Suffer inifs 0/" C 'hrifl, and 
the Glory that fhould follow ; i Ic tliereforo 
(•^) for the yoy that itnis Jet before him^ en^ 
dured the Cro/'sy deffifmg the Shame : (/|) 
ly here fore God alfo hath hi[yhly iix alti: i) 
hi my and (5) fit him at his own Ri^ht^ 
hand k x a 1. r v. n , (6) and hath ^iven him a 
J^ame that /v a hove every Name, that (7) 
I N T M K Nam j-; ov J li s u s every Knee 
f.'ouldbowy of Things in Ifeaven, and Jhings 

(9) PliJ. ii. 6. 

(0 John'iv. \;\. V. 30. Vi. 38, -)/. 

(/) I /'./. i. I I. 

{\) Hih. xii. I. 

(4) Phil. ii. <; 

(0 /IlI ii 35 Ef^h.'x. 20, i^c. 

(6) Pl/il. ii. y, lo, II. 


ii8 An^ssAY o;^ Spirit. 

in Earth, and things wider the Earth : 
And that every T'ongue fiould confefs that 
Jefus Chrift is Lord to the Glory of God 
the Father, 

CV. Wherefore Jefus having (8) finijh- 
ed the Work which his Father gave him to 
do, and manifefted his 'Name unto Men, that 
they might know God the Father the only 
true God, and Jefus Chrift whom he hath 
fent ; and having perfifred therein unto 
Death, (9) that he fnight reconcile both 
Jews and Gentiles unto God in one Body by 
the Crofs : And having been (i) for the 
Suffering of Death crowned with Glory and 
Honour ; inftead of the Portion of Ifrael, 
which had been before the Line or Boun- 
dary of his Inheritance ; he had now (2) 
Power given him over all Flefh. And (3) 
all Nations were made of one Blood under 
him, and the Bounds of their Habitations 

(8) John xvii. 4, vi. 3. 

(9) Eph. ii. i6» 
(i) lieb. ii. 9, 

(2) John xvii. 2. 

(3) Aiis xvii. 26. 


/In Essay on Spirit. 119 

were brought within the Line of his Inhe- 
ritance : And (4) there was given unto him 
Dominion and Glory ^ and a Kingdom, that 
all People, Nations and Languages Jhould 
ferve him. 

CVI. From this Time forth, therefore, 
his Difciples were fent unto (5) all Nations, 
to (6) preach the Gofpel unto every Creature, 
And what is remarkable is, that from this 
Time the fame holy Spirit which under the 
Mofaical Difpenfation (7) fpake by the 
Prophets, and had only illuminated the 
Minds of thofe of the Sons of Ifrael, to 
whom the Word of God came, was through 
the Interceflion of Jefus Chrifl, conferred 
upon all Mankind that believe on him, of 
what Nation foever they be, whether Jews 
or Gentiles ; and Jhed forth his benign In- 
fluence on all thofe who come to God 
through Jefus Chrifl : That (8) through 

{4) Dan. vii. 14. 

(5) Matt, xxviii. 10.' 

(6) Mar. xvi, 15. 

(7) 2 Pet. i. 21, and Nicene Creed. 

(8) Eph.u. 18. 


110 An Eassy on Spirit. 

him both Jews and Gentiles may have an 
Accefs by one Spirit unto the Father, That 
{g) the BleJIing of Abraham , wherein it 
was promifed that in his Seed fhould all 
the Nations of the Earth be blefTed, might 
come on the Gentiles through Jefus Chrifl", 
that they might receive the Promife of the 
Spirit through Faith : And that ( i ) all 
might be baptized into one Body^ whether 
they be Jews or Gentiles, whether they be 
bond or- free, and might all be made to drink 
into one Spirit. 

CVII. When therefore fefm Chrift the 
Lord was raifed from the Dead, and for- 
mally inverted in the PolTeilion of that 
Kingdom which (2) the Father had appoiji- 
ted imto him ; having received from the Fa- 
ther the Promife of the holy Spirit, he 
fhed forth, this holy Spirit (3) abundantly, 
as well upon the (4) Gentiles as the 'Jews, 

(g) Gal. iii. 14. 

(1) I Cor. xii. 13. 

(2) Luk. xxii. 29. 

(3) T:it. iii. 6. 

(4) Aa. xi. 15. 


An Essay on Spirit. 121 

putting no Difference between them. Which 
holy Spirit is fometlmes, in the Language 
of the Scriptures of the New Teftament, 
called the Spirit of God the Father, becaufc 
he (5) proceedeth from the Father who 
fent him unto us ; and fometimes the Spirit 
of the Son, or the Spirit of Chrift, becaufc 
it was by the InterceiTion of fefus the 
Chriji that the Supply of this holy Spirit 
was fent unto us ; and is alfo called (6) 
the Spirit of Truth, becaufe it was fent tQ 
guide Mafikind into all T'ruth, 

CVIII. Now St. John plainly calieth 
that holy Spirit, by whidi he was infpired 
with the Book of Revelations, an AngeU 
For his Words are thefe, (7) The Revela-^ 
tion of Jefus Chrift-, 'which God gave unto 
him, to Jl:ew unto his Servants Things 
which mujl fhortly come to pafs ; and he fent 
and Jignified it by his Angel unto his 
Servant John. And yet through this whole 

(5) John XV. a6. 

(6) John xvi. 13. xiv. 26. I John ij. ^o, z-j. 

(7) Jtev.l I. 

R Book, 

122 An Essay on Spirit. 

Book, he calls this Revelation, the Dic- 
tates of the Spirit. (8) He that hath Ears 
to hear^ fays he, let htm hear what the 
Spirit faith unto the Churches. And it is 
very remarkable, that although the Virgin 
Mary is pofitively faid to have been (9) 
found with Child of the holy Spirit^ and to 
have conceived of the holy Spirit ; yet the 
Perfon fent to her from God upon this Oc- 
cafion, calls himfelf an Angel, and in par- 
ticular, ( I ) the Angel Gabriel that Jlandeth 
in the Prejence of God ; who under the old 
Covenant had been fent to infpire (2) Da- 
72iel v^ath Skill and Underftanding. 

CIX. Which (3) Angel Gabriel be- 
ing fent from God unto the Virgin Mary, 
^he AsGEL, fays St. Luke, came in unto 
her^ and faid. Hail, thou art highly fa- 
voured, the Lord is with thee : Bleffed art 

(8) Rev. ii. 7, 1 1 , 1 7, 1 9. iii. 6, 1 3, 22. 

(9) Mat. i. 1 8, 20. 
(i) Luk. i. 19, 26. 

(21 Dan. viii. 1$. ix. 21. 

(3) Luk. i. 26. 


An Essay o?i Spirit. 113 

thou among Women. Behold^ tboufialt con- 
ceive in thy IVomb^ and bring forth a Son, 
and (Jmll call his Name Jefus. Ihen [aid 
Mary imto the. Angel, how jl:all this be^ 
feeing I know not a Man ? And the Ange l 
anfwered and faid unto her, the holy 
SpiRiTy7W/ come upon theCy and. the Power 
of the Highejl fhall overfhadow thee ; there ^ 
fore alfo that holy T^hing^ which Jhall be born 
of thee, fhall be called the Son of God. And 
Mary faid, behold the Handmaid of the 
Lord, be it unto me according to thy Word. 

ex. Which is all the Account we have 
of this Affair, but that after fhe returned 
from her Coufin Elizabeth's, where flie 
had remained three Months, (5) She was 
found to be with Child, before foe and Jo- 
seph, to whom fie was e/poufd, had come to- 
gether ; then Jofeph her Hujhand being a 
(6) good-natured Man, and not willing to 

(5) Mat. I. 18, 19, 20. 
(6) Aixato?. This Word is often ufed to fignify a gosd' 
jiatured Perfon, in which Senle alfo the Word jujius is fre- 
quently ufed in the Latin Tongue: And in this Sen fe this 
Word ought to be underftood, Ji^s x. zz. i yo/m i. 9. 

R 2 make 

124 An Essay on Spirit. 

make her a public Example, was minded 
to put her away privately. But while he 
thought on thefe T'hings, behold^ the An- 
gel of the Lord appeared unto him in a 
Dream^ jaying, Jofeph thou Son of David, 
fear not to take unto thee Mary thy Wife : 
For that which is conceived in her is of the 
holy Spirit, ^hen Jofeph, bei7ig raifedfrom 
his Sleep, did as the Angel of the Lord 
had bidden him^ and took unto him his Wife : 
y^nd knew her not till fie had brought forth 
her firfi'born Son. 

CXI. The pre-exiflent Spirit of the Lo- 
gos being therefore, by the wonderful Pow- 
er and Will of God, conveyed into the 
Womb of the Virgin by the Miniftration of 
the holy Spirit, flie conceived and brought 
forth fefus : By v/hich Union of that ex- 
alted Spirit with human Nature, the Lo- 
gos became incarnate and was made Man. 
W^hich Logos did by this Piece of Condef- 
ccnfion, fo far ksycoo-s lc(.ii\Qv, (7) empty him- 

(7) Phil ii. 7. 

An Essay on Spirit, iiy 

felfy and diveft himfelf of that Glory of his 
antecedent State, which he had with the Fa- 
ther, before the World was, that. Sin on- 
ly excepted, he became Uable and fubject 
to all the Infirmities of our Nature. And 
therefore, during the Time of his Continu- 
ance here upon Earth, he is reprefented all 
along as being under the Guidance andCon- 
du6t of the holy Spirit, 

CXII. He is accordingly faid to have 
been (8) led up of the Spirit into the Wil- 
dernefs to be tempted of the Devil : And 
that when the (9) Devil had ended his 
Temptation^ Jefin returned in the Power 
of the Spirit into Galilee. That afterwards. 
He ( I ) caji out Devils by the Spirit of God, 
which (2) defended upon him at his Bap- 
tifm in a (3) vifible Manner, and abode 


(8) Matth. iv. I. 

(9) Luke iv. 13, 14. 

(1) Matth. xii. 8. 

(2) "John i. 22. 

(3) /'■ e. By the Defcent of a lucid fhining Appearance 
which alighted, and rcfted upon him, ur%i irt^-ifxf, as a. 


ii6 j^n Essay on Spirit. 

up07i him for fome Time. He is therefore 
faid to have been (4) anointed with the holy 
Spirit, and with Power : And that when 
he was in an Agony praying with Vehe- 
mence to God, that if poffible the Cup of 
his AfHidtions might pafs from him, (5) 
jift Angel appeared unto him Jrom Heaven, 
Iirengthe7ting him : That it was through 
(6) the eternal Spirit , that he offered himfelf 
without Spot to God upon the Crofs : That 
when he was in the Grave, he was (7) 
quickened by the Spirit, and (8) declared to 
be the So?i of God with Power, according to 
the Spirit of Holinefs, by the RefurreSiion 
from the Dead, 

Do^e. Not that this alludes to the Form and Figure of 
the Appearance, as if it was in the Shape of a Dove ; but 
to the Manner of its Defcent, which defcended and alight- 
ed upon our Saviour, as a Dove defcends and lights 
upon any Thing. See Seft. 82, And Whitby on Luke 

(4) Aas X. 38. See Note in Sed. 103. 

(5) Luke xx\u 42, 43. 

(6) Heb. ix. 14. 

(7) I Pet. iii. 18. 

(8) Rem. iii. 4. 


An Essay on Spirit. 127 

CXni. And indeed it does not appear, 
either in the Old or New Teftament, that 
the LiOgos had any Power over the Holy 
Spirit, till after his Afcenfion, (9) when all 
Tower was given unto khn, both in Heaven 
and Earth. For faid Jefus to bis Difciples, 
(i) // is expedient for you y that I go awayl 
for if I go not away, the Comforter 
will not come unto you ; but if I depart / 
will fend him unto you. For, (2) I will pray 
the Father, and he fiall give you another 
Comforter, that he may abide with you for 
ever j even the Spirit of 'Truth, (s) which 
proceedeth from the Father : Whom I will 
fend to you from the Father. For as St, 
fohn remarks, (4) the Spirit was not yet 
given, becaufe fefus was not yot glorified. 
He therefore after his Reftirredlion, com- 
manded his Difciples (5) not to depart from 

(9) Matth. xxviii. i8, ig. 

(1) John xvi. 7. 

(2) "John xiv. 1 6. 

(3) John XV. 26, 

(4) John vii. 39. 

(5) Lide xxiv. 49. j^iffs i. 4. 


xiS An Essay on Spirit. 

Jerufalem, till after his Afcenfion, but to 
wait for the Promife of th^ Father. Which 
having (6) received of the Father, he fhed 
it forth upon them. From which Time, 
this Spirit is for the Future indifferently 
called the Spirit of God, and (7) the Spi- 
rit of Chriftf or (8) the Spirit of the S0J2 ; 
becaufe the Son had now obtained Power 
of the Father, to fend him, not to xhtfews 
only, but alfo to the Gentiles ; that all Na- 
tions might be baptized, (9) in the Name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Spirit ; ( i ) that the offering up of the Gen" 
tiles might be acceptable, being fanSiified by 
the Holy Spirit. It feems therefore highly 
reafonable, that we fhould pay divine Ho- 
mage to that holy Spirit in Proportion to 
the Degree of Power which hath been de-f 
legated to him, from the Almighty ; and 
that it is our Duty to pray to him, for the 

(6) Afts ii. 33. 

(7) Rom. viii. g. 

(8) Gal iv. 6. 

(9) Matth. xxviii. 19. 
(i) Roin. XV. 16. 


Att Essay on Spirit. 129 

Communication of thofe fanclifyingQiX2iCQSy 
which he hath receivcdj Power from God 
the Father, through tlie Son, to diflribute 
to his Difciples. I do not fay that we 
ought to pray to him for the Forgivenefs of 
our Sins, becaufe (i) all Judgment hath not 
been comtnitted unto him : But as he was un- 
doubtedly fent, to be our (3) Comforter^ to 
guide us into all I'riitb, and to help our In- 
firmities^ furely we ought to pray to him, 
to comfort us, and to grant us his Affif- 
tance, that we may be (^4) led by him, and 
that we may of the Spirit, reap Life ever- 
lafiing* And as the Manijeliation of the 
Spirit was given to every Man to profit 
withal ; and as to one^ is given by the Spi- 
rit the Word of Wifdom, and to an other y 
the Word of Knowledge, by the fame Spirit^ 
dividing to every Man fever ally as he will -, 
furely it is but reafonable, that we fhould 
apply to that holy Spirit, who (5) fearch- 

(2) See Se£l. 85, 100, loi, 102. 

(3) John XIV. zS. John xvi. 13. Rom.v'm 26. 
{4) Rom. viii. 14. Eph. vi. 8. i Cor. xii. 7, i^c. 
(5) I Cor, ii. ip. 

S etb 

130 Jln Essay on Spirit. 

€th in our Hearts, the deep Things of God, 
to confer fuch a Portion of his Influence 
on our Minds, as may by Degrees (6) 
^licken and Strengthen us, till we fhall be 
at length filled therewith. Lead alfo on 
tlie other Hand, by negle61:ing fo manifeft a 
Duty, we ihould thereby (7) grieve and do 
fuch defpite to the Spirit of Grace as entire- 
ly to ^lench it. See Seel. 84. 85. 

CXIV. I apprehend therefore, it is mani- 
feftly fhevved in thefe Papers, that, from 
the Confideration of the Nature of Spirit, 
by the Light of Rcafon, it appears, there 
can be but one God, that is, one fupreme 
intelligent Agent ; which one God may 
however, create an infinite Series of fpiri- 
tual Agents, in Subordination one to ano- 
tlier ; fome of which may, by an Autho- 
rity communicated to them, from the fu- 
preme God, a6l as Gods, with Regard to 
thofe inferior Beings, who are committed 

(6) 1 Pet.m. 18. Eph. iii. t6. v. 8. 

(7) Eph. iv. 3. HeLx. 29. I Thef.v, 9. 


y^;^ Essay ^« Spirit. 131 

into their Charge. I apprehend it like- 
wife appears from the Sentiments of the 
Jews, as well as from the Scriptures, both 
of the Old and New Teftament, that this 
is the Method of Government, which the 
Almighty hath been pleafed to purfue in the 
OEconomy of this Univerfe ; Hill refer ving 
to himfelf, that incommunicable Quality of 
fupremei which it would be a Contradidli- 
on to fuppofe him diverted of, either with 
or without his Will ; that is either by his 
own Coqfcnt, or by NecefTity. 

CXV. It may not therefore be improper 
to confider, what was the Opinion of the 
mod: early Fathers of the Chriftian Church 
upon this Head ; which though it ought to 
have no Weight agalnfl: the exprefs Dic- 
tates, either of Reafon or Revelation, yet in 
Points not fjlly or dillindlly revealed, the 
confulting of them, is very proper and ufe- 
ful ; as they certainly are, the bell Evidence 
that can pofTibly be had of the Sentiments 
of the Church in their Times ; and the 
nearer that thofe Fathers lived to the Times 
S 2 of 

13^ ^n Essay on Spirit. 

of the Apoftles, they may juftly be fup- 
pofed to be the lefs liable to have varied 
from any of the Do(5lrines or Pra(5tices of 
the truly primitive Church. 

CXVI. Now if we confult the Opinions 
of the Fathers upon this Subject, for the 
iirft three hundred Years after Chrift, we 
fliall find them all univerfally agreeing in 
thb*^' aforementioned Dodtrinc : As may 
app'ear by confulting Jujiin Martyr^ 
Athenagoras^ Tatian, IrefKeiis^ the Author 
of the B.ccognitio?is, T-ertidlian^ Clemens 
AlexandrmuSy Origen^ Gregory T^hauma- 
tiirgus, Dionyfius of Alexandria^ LaSfan- 
tluSy Sec ; out of which it feems needlefs 
to produce any Quotations ; as this Point is 
plainly given up by two of the moft learn- 
ed Perfons of the lafl: Age, who being of a 
contrary Opinion from thofe Fathers, can- 
not be fufpedtcd of lightly giving up a 
Teflimony of fo much Confequcnce, if the 
Flagrancy of the Truth had not obliged 
them to it : And that is the learned Bifhop 


An Essay on Spirit. 133 

Bull, and the learned Dodlor Cudworth, 
The Words of Bifhop Bull, when fpeak- 
ing of the Sentiments of Orige?i upon this 
Subject, are thefe, " I conclude thus with 
** myfelf, that Origen, who hath been fo 
" feverely cenfured by Divines, both anci- 
" ent and modern, was really CathoUck in' 
** the Article of the facred Trinity ; al- 
" though, in the Manner of explaining that 
** Article, he fometimes fpeaks orherwife, 
" than the Catholicks do ; (8) which is no 
** more than almofi all the Fathers did 
*' who lived hejore the Couficil of Nice. 
As for Dr. Cudworth, he does not only 
give up the primitive Fathers, in their Ex- 
preflions, but alfo In their Meaning. For, 
as he undoubtedly thought himfelf to be in 
the Right, he imagined, thofe Fathers to 
have been in an Error ; and makes ufe of 
this univerfal Confent of the ancient Fa- 
thers, of the three firft Centuries, in afler- 
ing the Dependence and Subjection of the 

(8) Quod ipfi cum reliquis fere omnibus Patribus, qui 
Concilium Nicaenum anteceflerunt, commune fuit, Bui- 
J)£f. Fid. Nic. Se(5t xi. c 9. ^. 22. 



134 ^^ Essay ofi Spirit. 

Son to the Father, as an Argument in Proof 
of the Fallibihty of the primitive Fathers of 
the Chriflian Church. For, fays he, (9) 
** Though it be true, that Athanafius, 
" writing againft the ArianSy docs appeal 
" to the Tradition of the ancient Church, 
" and among others, cites Origen's Tefti- 
mony ; yet was this only for the Eterni- 
ty and Divinity of the Son of God, but 
not at all for fuch an abfolute Co-equa- 
lity of him with the Father, as would 
exclude all Dependence, Subordination^ 
and Inferiority : Thofe ancients fo una- 
nimoufly agreeing therein, that they are 
therefore by Petavius taxed with Plato- 
nifm, and having by that Means, cor- 
rupted the Purity of the Chriitian Faith, 
*' in this Article of the Trinity. Which 
" how it can be reconciled with thofe other 
*' Opinions of Ecclefiaftical Tradition be- 
*' ing a Rule of Faith, and the Impoflibi- 
** lity of the Vifible Churches erring in 




(9) Cud. Intel. Syft. L. i. C. 4. p. 595. 



/In Essay on Spirit. 135 

" any Rindamcntal Point cannot, fays he, 
** eafily be underflood.'* 

CXVII. For my own Part, I will readi- 
ly give up the Fallibility of the primitive 
Fathers, and whoever will but give him- 
felf the Trouble of perufing their Writings, 
will foon be convinced, that they were fal- 
lible Men ; and I therefore only make ufe 
of their Teftimony in this Point, to fhew 
what was the Senfe of the Church in their 
Days, of which their own Writings are an 
infallible Proof ; whether they were falli- 
ble in themfelves or not. 

CXVni. But PefavhiSy fays Cuawortb, 
taxed the primitive Fathers with Platonifm, 
and with having by that Means, corrupted 
the Purity of the Chriftian Faith. That 
many of the primitive Fathers, were bred 
up in the Schools o£ the Platofiic Philofo- 
phers can hardly be denied ; and that they 
would be inclined to endeavour to reconcile 
their own Principles and thofe of the Chri- 


1^6 yin "Essay on Spirit. 

ftian Religion together, is more than pro- 
bable. It is alfo certain, that the Pagans 
held the Do6lrine of a T'rinity, and made 
ufe of that Word to exprefs it by ; but if it 
can be proved,that they held a Subordination in 
the Perfons of the Irmity, before Chriftia- 
nity appeared in the World, and that all the 
primitive Chriflians, whether Platoni/is or 
not, held alfo the Dodlrine of a Subordina- 
tion of Power, in the Perfons of the 7r/- 
nity^ for the firfl: three hundred Years after 
Chrift ; then the more probable Confequence 
to be drawn from thence, is this, That the 
Doctrine of the Trinity, as held by the primi- 
tive Chrlftians, coinciding with the Dodtrine 
of the Trinity, as held by the Pagans in ge- 
neral, and by the Platonifts in particular, 
wherein a Subordination of Power be- 
tween the three Perfons of the Trinity 
was a fundamental Principle, this might be 
one main Rcalbn, why the Platonifts were 
fo ready to embrace the Chriftian Religion ; 
And not that they corrupted it after they 

had embraced it ; fmce had their Principles, 


-^>^ Essay ^/^ Spirit. 137 

and the Chriftians on this Subjedl origi- 
nally differed, the Flatonijls would not have 
been fo eafily made Converts. 

CXEX. It may therefore not be improper 
at prefent to fct before the Reader a fhort 
Sketch of the Do6lrine of the Pagan Tri- 
nity, from whence will appear the Truth 
of what I have juft now afferted. 

CXX.- The Opinion of the Egyptians 
concerning tlie Trinity, may be found in 
Jamblicm^ who delivers it unto us. For 
in the Beginning of the Eighth Sedlion, he 
makes Porphyry afk, " What do the Egyp- 
" tians fay is the Firji Caufe ? Is it Intel- 
** ledt, or fomething above Intelle(5l ? Or, 
*' is it one only Being, or is it two, or 
** more ? Or, is it corporeal, or incor- 
*' poreal ? Or, is it the fame with the 
** Creator of this Univerfe or fomething fu- 
** perior ? In fhort, were all Things pro- 
*' duced by One^ or by Many ?" To which 
'Jamblicm anfwereth : ripo tm orliws ov^\my 
TCoii TOJV oKoov Ap^oou ie^i OgoS «$, Trpcolo? xai rar 

T iTiTrAl- 

138 A?i Essay on Spirit. 

i7ri7r^ex€]oe,i, »lg aAAo t). YlxpctS'iiyfJLCL <fi 
iapulcct ra ocv;o7rulpo9, auloyoya, Kcti uovgttcc^ 
iopos Gg8, Tbtovlcos dyct^s. Mei^ov ydp n y.aii 
•TTpooioVj 'jccli 7r;m im iravlcav^ vAi ttv^ixyw 
Toov vQUfJitvcav irpuilcav ^^oov Ivloov' aVo S'e tb 
eyoi Tfcf/8j oav.ccp^y/^ Ggos exvlav f^sAcLjuC^ey S^io 
xcci avloTTcc^upj xai av'locp^ij?, '^PX^ y^P auloi 
xcci Gsos ^ecov' Qfjioras Ix, ra Iros, Trposa-icts x,a.i 
ttpX^ TYii saiocs*J cLir ccvis yctp v\ (tcriolm noci tt 
aaicc' S'io yaip voT^.ctp'^ni irpoi ayopeuelxi' 
' Aviui fxh ovv «Vlj/ dp^di 7rp€(r{^ulaclac.i Travlooy^ 
ai Epja>j5 Trpo toov a^ipKav xai fjxTroptMy 
viuu 7rpo^aT€{, Tcai rctiu eirapxvimu Which 
is thus rendered into Latin by Mr. Gale : 
Ante eas res qtice vere funt, C^ ante 
Principia univerfaliumy efl Deus unus, prior 
etiam primo Deo cf Rege j eft ilk immobilis 
in folitudine fuce Unitatis permanens, neque 
enim intellediuale ei mifcetur, neqiie aliquid 
alind^ ejlque exemplar ipfius qui efi fid Pa- 
ter^ & de fe genii us & unipat'er Deus ; ^ 
n)ere bonus. E/l enim majuSy quid & prius^ 
Pons omnium ^ Radix intelligibilium Idea- 
rum primarum Pntium. Ab hoc autem utw, 
Deus per fe fiifficiens fe ipje explicavtt j pro- 


An Essay on Spirit. 139 

inde eft fui Pater & fibi fiifficie7is* E[i 
enim hie & Principiuniy & Deus Deoriun, 
Unitas ex uno Superejjentialis & EJJentia 
Principium ; na?72 ab eo Jinit Entitas c? Ef- 
Jentiay qua propter Noetarcha dicitur. Hcec 
igitur funt Principia omnium antiqiiijjimay 
qua Mercurius Jiipra Deos atJoereos & em- 
pyreosy C^ cceleftes conjiituit, 

CXXI. I would have tranflated this Paf- 
fage into EnglifJd, if I could, but there are 
fome Parts of it which Teem to me fo fuper- 
intelligible,. that I thought it advifable to 
give it in the Author's own Words : And 
refer the Englifi Translation of it to fome 
of thofe Deiftical Admirers of the Plain- 
ncfs and Simplicity of the Religion of Na- 
ture, who cannot bear the Thoughts of 
any thing that is myfterious in Revealed Re- 

CXXII. Abftrufe and dark however, as it 
i?, we may be furnifhed by it with fome 
Light towards the Explanation of fome Ex- 
preffions in the Pythagorean Trinity, as it 

T 2 \% 

140 An Essay 07t Spirit. 

is given us by ( i ) ^implichis in his Com- 
ment on Arifiotle out of Moderatus the Py- 
thagorean : to fj-h Trpulov 'iv vTep to ov xcei 
iroLioLv b(netv aTrctpctivSicci' to Se Setjlepov ev 
oTip e^i TO ovmi oi', JNowJok, ra «d^>) ^n- 
a/f &ivcci' no S'e Tptiovy oirep e(^i "^u^i^ovy 
fxe^s^Eiv ra lpo5, xa; to^j/ ei^Zv. For it is 
plain that the Trpojlov Iv vir^p to ov xai ir^crccv 
ya-Uv^ of the Pythagoreans, that is, /i6f F/;^? 
O/ze" ivho is above Being, and all Rxiftence, 
is the fame (I had almoft faid Being) with 
that God of the Egyptians, who being 
prior to the Firfl: God, is Super-Litelligible. 
1 flat tne to deulepov gv ott?^ gij'i to oviMi or, 
xa< NoJjIoV, Ta a'cT/j (p/)o-)j' «va<. That is, 
tbe Secoitd One, who is Exiftence itfelf, and 
Intelligence, and is called Ide.'\, is that 
Firft, or rather Second God aforemention- 
ed, who according to the Egyptians^ hav- 
ing unfolded himfelf, came forth into Be- 
ing, and w^as felf-begotten, and was equally 
his own Father and his own Son, who is 
the Principle of all Exiftence, and of all 

(l) 5;w/>. in Phyf. Ariji, fol. 50. 


A?! Essay 07i Spirit. 141 

Intelligence. As to the <ro t^\%v \vy or 
l^hird OnCy of the Pythagoreans^ which 
they call ^t>;:^/3toV, or AnimaU that anfwers 
to the third and lower Clafs of the Empi- 
rean and ^iherial Deities, who were fup- 
pofcd to prefide over feveral Parts of this 
Univerfe, being as it were the Souls of this 

CXXin. The Platonic Trinity, as it 
was digefted into Form by the Difciples of 
Plato, was not very different from this. 
There is indeed no one Padage in Plato, 
w^here his Notion of a Deity is delivered 
explicitly, and reduced into a regular Syf- 
tem. For, either out of Fear of his Coun- 
trymen, or becaufe he was not fettled in his 
own Notions, or both, he fpeaks very ob- 
fcurely on this Subjedt. That Treatife 
which he entitles Timaiis is the moil: co- 
pious on this Head, and therein he fpeaks 
plainly of (2) one fempiternal and unorigi- 
nated God. Which God, fays PlatOy when 

(2) TO e» ««, yen<rn It wk t^ov. 


142- -^^^ Essay on Spirit. 

he reafoned within himfelf about a future 
God, made this Univerfc, and placed this 
(3) perfectly happy God which lie begat, 
as the Soul in the Middle of it. 

CXXIV. Which God, though he fre* 
^ucntly mentions as a created Being, yet he 
ftiles him alfo (4) the Image of Intelli- 
gencey or of the moft intelligent God ; the 
greateji and be ft j the mod beautiful^ and the 
moft perfeBy and the only-begotten God. 
Which Univerfe, fays Plato, when he had 
thus made and (5) contemplated, he rejoi- 
ced over it. He then made T!ime, and (6) 
formed the Sun and Moon, and five other 
Planets to be the Meafures thereof. But as 
there were yet no Animals, therefore God 

(2) luoaifAoa mov ocvlov lymriaMo. 

(4) Eix.o)ia TtJ vor^y, (juiytfov x.ou aftfot. *aMir*f ««» riKuu- 
lalov. and MovoyEi/fl. 

(5) Whoever reads this, I think, cannot avoid being 
convinced that Plato herein imitates the Account which 
Mofis gives of the Creation, which he finilhes with faying, 
andGod fa<vj every thing that he had made, and behold it nvas 
fuery good. Gen. i. 31. 

(6) 'H?iio? Kcti Se^w»!, x»» 'tiy\i aXAa arfa. WiX^aytxovla 
II7i.«»»;1>)?, «? oiopi6rj/.ov xai (pv'Ka.Kiiv afihybuv %pof« yiyoviv- See 

Gemjis i. 14 ; of which this is almoll aTranflation. 


/l7i Essay on Spirit. 145 

formed what was wanting, by a fecondary 

Imitation of the fir ft Exemplar : Trpoi r^v t5' 
7roipa.S'eiyfj[,cc\o9 d7ro%7r(iy.evoi (pva-iv. Which 
is plainly borrowed from that Do6trine* 
among the yews, wherein they aflerted 
Man not to be made in the Image of the 
Supreme God, but of the Second God. 
The Words of Philo Judceus, as they are 
quoted by EufebiiiSy are, ^vnlov yap ovS'h 
ccTreiKovi^yiyaci Trpcs roy avmonoy vAi Trcclepcty 
Tcoy o^ojv eS'vi'ouoy aAAa Tpoi ' Tpv S^svlepov 
6goV, 05 e<^iu ea&vs ?\.ayo5. Nihil ' enim mor- 
tale in fiimmi illius G? rerum univerfartan 
Parentis imaginem confignari poteli, fed in 
Ijnagi?iem Secundi Dei, hoc efi ejus Verbis 
potefi. Eufeb. Prasp. Evang. lib. vii. cap. 


CXXV. Plato then, in Compliance with 
the orthodox Notion of his Country, and 
for Fear of the Fate o£ Socrates, fays, But as to 
other Gods which are called (7) Dcemons, to 
fpcak properly of their Origin or even to 

{7) See Sea. XXXV. 


144 ^^ Essay 07i Spirit. 

conceive It, is above the Reach of our Fa- 
culties ; it is therefore our Duty to believe 
thofe our Anceftors, who having unfolded 
their Natures, affirm them to be the off- 
fpring of the Gods ; and fo to fubmit our- 
fclves to the ancient Laws and Cuftoms. 
And then he introduces the God who (8) 
framed all Things as fpcaking to thefe Dae- 
mons, Saturn^ Ops, Jupiter, &c, whom he 
calls (9) the Gods begotten by himfelf ; 
and empowers them to be his Inftruments in 
the Produ6tion of animals, and (i) to imitate 
that Virtue which he had exercifed in their 

CXXVL Whence it Is plain, that Plafo 
was afraid to fpeak out ; but his Difciples 
by Degrees gathering Courage, his Syftem 
was reduced into Form, before the Time 
of (2) Porphyry, who in his fourth Book 

(8) O? TO TToiv yiyracn, 

[g] To?; EaJls yivrifxa, j-i. 

(l) Mi(/Aifjuwoi TTiv 6|M.»!v ^t'va/xiv TTff* rr,)i lf/.t}y yivicrif. 

iz) Porphpy flouriflied about the latter End of the third 
Century : His Books were afterwards ordsred to be burnt ; 
bat the Quotation which I have here produced may be 
found in St. Cjril'i Treatife againliyw/;^/;. B. 8. 


An Essay on Spirit. 145 
of the Hlftory of Philofophy, fays, "A%e/ ^ 

f^^eiv Baiaiv' iivcti il r \j^ dvoilcclov^ ^iov 

ad tres Hypoftafes, dicit Plato, Dei progredi 
Ejjentiam ; G? ejje quidem dicit Deum fumme 
bonum ; pofi ilium autem fecundum Con- 
dltorem : tertium autem Mundi Animam. 

CXXVII. Porphyry was reckoned the 
mod learned Platoniji of his Age ; And 
flourifhed about the Time when the con- 
fubftantial Doctrine of the Trinity began 
to make a Noife ; and therefore his Senfe 
of the Platonick Do(5trine, js fo much 
the more for our Purpofe. It appears 
therefore from hence, that the Platonick 
and Pythagorean Doclrine of the Trinity, 
did not differ very widely at this Time one 
from the other, and that that God of the 
Egyptians^ which was prior to the firft, or 
the npwiov Iv of the Pythagortans was .the 
fame with the to eV, and the to dya^ov of 
U the 

1^6 An Essay on Spirit. 

the Platonifts. The God of Exijlence, 
Ideas, or Litelligencey according to the 
Egyptians, or the to S'Apov h of the Py- 
thagoreans, which they alfo called eiS^Yi, Idea, 
being by the Platoitifh called Nas and Koyo?i 
i. e. Mind and Reafony or Wifdonu And 
the inferior Clafs of aetherial Deities, who 
were confidered as the Soul of the World, 
among the Egyptians, anfwering to the 
T/)i1oi/ iv or the iv ^u;^zjcoV of the Pythago- 
reans, being called "^^x^* ^' ^' ^^^ ^ouJ, 
by the Plato?iiJis. 

CXXVin. They agreed alfo In the Of- 
iices which were afUgned to thefe I^hree 
Gods* For the Firft was aderted to be Ct^^ 
above all Exiftence and Intelligence. The 
Second God was Exiftence and Intelligence 
itfelf, and the Communicator of them to 
other Beings : He Is therefore reprefented 
by them as the Avifjuapyoit the Fabricator 
and Maker of this Frame of the Univerfe. 
The Third God, who is faid to partake 
both of the Firft and Second "Er, or God, 


An Essay on Spirit. 147 

was held to be the Soul of the World, 
vivifying and enlivening it. 

CXXIX. Hence it is plain, however, that 
the Difciples of Plato had varied from their 
Maker's Plan. Becaufe he pofitively afferts the 
one unoriginated God to have made this Uni- 
verfe, and therefore frequently calls him the 
(3) Anfj(,iiipyoi. He likewife pofitively ailerts 
the Second, that is, the God who was begot- 
ten by the one unoriginated God, to have 
been placed by him in the Middle of this 
round Univerfe as the (4) the Soul of it, 

CXXX. It is neverthelefs manifefl:, be- 
yond all Controverfy, that both Plato and 
his Difciples held a Kind of eflential Subor- 
dination to have exifted between thefe Gods, 
as the Hebrews undoubtedly did. And 
therefore I fuppofe them to have been more 
eafily converted to the Chriftian Religion 
than they otherwife would have been. 

(3) Plato in Timao. 

(4) Id, ibid. 

U 2 CXXXI. And 

148 An Essay on Spirit, 

CXXXI. And accordingly, Clemens AleX' 
andrinuSf one of thofe primitive Fathers 
whom Cudworth allows to ha\e acknow- 
ledged a Subordination In the Perfons of 
the Trinity, when fpcaking concerning a 
PaiTage in Plato, fays, (5) " / under- 
" ft and this no otherwife than that the holy 
*' trinity is Jignified thereby^ theTniKD 
*' being the holy Spirit, and the Second 
*' the Son, by whojii all Takings were made, 
*' according to the Will oj /^(? Father." 
This PafTage to which Clemens refers is to 
be found in the fecond Epiftle of Plato to 
Di'onyfiiiSy on account of his having com- 
plained that Plato was not explicit enough 
in what he faid about the Firft Caufe, to 
whom Plato fays, *' That thefe Things 
** muft be fpoken of in a Kind of Riddle, 
** that if any Accident fhould happen to 
** thefe Papers either by Land or Sea, he 
** that finds them may not be able to un- 
** derfland them. The Thing therefore 

(5) Clem. Alex, Stroip. lib. v. p. 710. Edit. pot. 

" fays 

Ati Essay on Spirit. 149 

" fays he, ftands thus : ns/») tcJj/ ttcIvImv /3a- 
** (TiAsac ttclA e<j-), xoci ex^eiVM iiceivct Trdvlct^ 
»jat ey.eivo aiiiov airavlcavTuv xaAfiwi'. diulf 
** pov Sfy Trepl Tcc ^suieptzy xai Tpiloi' Trg^r 
** Tot rpiloc." Circa omnium Regent funt 
Qtnnia^ & illius Caiifa omnia : & Ipje ejl 
omnium Rerwn pulchrarmn Caufa : Se- 
cwjdufn ad Secimda : T^ertiiun ad T'ertia, 
Which Fear of a Difcovery accounts for 
the feemlng Contradicllons in Plato, and 
the Darknefs in which his Theology is in- 
volved, and fhews that his Difciples were 
indeed obliged to pick his Do6trine out of 
Riddles, as he himfelf expreffcth It. 

CXXXII. But (6) St. Cyril of Alexan- 
dria, who was of the contrary Opinion 
from Clemens AlexandrinuSy that is, who 
held a Coequality in the Perfons of the 
Trinity, for he lived in the fifth Century, 
and about 100 Years after the Council of 
ISIice, wherein the Confubftantiality of the 
Father and Son was firft eftabliihed in the 

(6) Cyril cont. Jul. lib, viii, 


150 j^n Essay on Spirit. 

Chriftian Church ; CyriU I fay, when fpeaking 
of the P/j/ow> Philofophy, (7) fays," There 
" would have been nothing at all wanting 
** to the Platonic Trinity, for an abfolute 
** Agreement of it with the Chrijlian, had 
** they but accommodated the right Notion 
** of Confiibftantiality to their three HypoJ^ 
** tafes ; fo that there might have been but 
** one fpecific Nature or EfTence of the 
■* Godhead, not diftinguifhable by any na- 
** tural Diverfity, and fo no one Hypojiajis 
*' any Way inferior or fubordinate to ano- 
*' ther. 

CXXXni. As for the Dodtrine of the 
three Hypoftafes, which is here mentioned 
by Cyrily that was not the Dodlrine of the 
Council of Nicey but was the Dodlrine of 
the ArianSy as well as of the Platonifls, It 
was indeed afterwards adopted by fome of 
the Conjubftantialijisy and was inferted in 
that Creed which goes under the Name of 
Athafjafius ; but which could not poflibly 

{7) Cjril cont. Jul. lib. viii. 


A?i Essay on Spirit. i ji 

have been written by him, becaufe lie, as 
well as the reft of the Nicene Fathers, in- 
fifted upon it, that there was but (8) one 
Hypojiafis in the Trinity, any more than one 
VJia^ fince they, contrary to the Do<$lrine 
of the PlatoniftSf fuppofed thofe two Words 
to mean one and the fame thing, in which how- 
ever they were certainly fo far in the right. 
For the Word OuaU literally fignifies a Being , 
or Exi/Ience ; and the Word 'Tiro^^oLai', lite- 
rally fignifies a Sub(ijlence, or Subftance ; 
which hath been fhewed in the (9) Begin- 
ning of this Treatife, to be the fame with 
a Being, or Exiftence, And accordingly, 
the Greek Word 'Oualcc Is generally tranfla- 
ted by the Latin Word Subftantia. (i) 
Socrates the Ecclefiaftical Hiftorian, who 
lived after Cyril, and was a very zealous 
Confubjlantialijiy when giving his Opinion 

{8) Athanajiui, in his Treatife on the Synods of Ariminum 
and Seleucia, (Vol. i. p. 934) which was written toward* 
the latter End of his Life, pofitively afTerts : r, ^l iVoras-if 
«(7ia £n> «M" ^ot* aXXe <rt)(A«t»o|*£»o» 5X«. Hypoftajis enim idem 
cum \Jsi\ fuhjlantia ejl, nee aliamJignif.cationcmbabet. And 
%o the fame Purpofe in feveral other Places. 

(9) See Sea. II. 

(1) Socrat. Ecclef. Hifl. lib. iii. cap. 7. 


iji An Essay o?i Spirit. 

concerning the Meaning of the Word 'Ttto^cc- 
o-i$, fays, " that this Word according to 
*' IraneuSf was a barbarous Word ; and 
** was not to be found among the ancient 
** Authors. But, fays Socrates y it is ufcd 
** by Sophocles to fignify a T'rap^ or Pitfall, 
*' to catch any thing in ; and by Menander 
** to fignify the Sedement of any thing ; as 
** for Example, if any one fhould call the 
*' hees of Wine which fall to the Bottom 
** an Hypo/lafis. But though this Word 
*' was not ufcd by the more ancient Philo- 
** fophers, yet, fays he, you muft under- 
** ftand that the Moderns make Ufe of it 
** inftead of 'Ot;o-ia." To fay therefore that 
the three Perfons in the Trinity are o?ie 
JJfia and three Hypoflafes, is the fame thing 
as to fay, that they are one Siibftance and 
three Siihjlances at the fame Time ; which I 
take to be a Contradiction in Terms, and 
therefore cannot be affirmed even of God 


An Essay on Spirit. 153 

CXXXIV. For when it is faid in the 
Nicene Creed, that the Son is (2) Ix t)i« 
t*o-/a$ Ta TTcclpoij of the Subjiance of the Fa- 
ther, and that he is cfJLOBdios tw Trcclfh f 
one Subjiance with the Father, it is not 
meant thereby that he is of one and the fame 
Kind of Subftance with the Father, but 
that he is actually one and the fame undivi- 
ded Subftance with the Father. Wherein 
then, you will fay, does the Difference con- 
fift ? Why, according to Cyril, not in any 
natural Diver/ity, but mma^immiiy only ; 
that is, in being faid to be three Subflanccs, 
at the fame Time that they are but one Sub- 

CXXXV. I am very fenfible that in our 
Englifh Tranflation of the Creed, com- 
monly called the Athanafian Creed, we have 
followed the Church of Rome, whofe Infal- 
libility can give what Signification it pleafes 

(a) This is omitted out of our Englijh Copy of the Ki- 
cene Creed, though it was undoubtedly in the original 

X to 

154 ^^ Essay on Spirit. 

to Words ; in rendering the Word 'TTrlxroe^cn, 
by the Rjiglijh Word Perfon, that Church 
having rendered it by the Latin Word Per^ 
jona. But let us fee whether this will mend 
the Matter, which we fhall find it does not, 
unlefs we make Ufe of a fhameful Kind of 
Equivocation, by ufing the Word Perfon in 
two different Scnfes ; or rather, in no Senfe 
at all. For that the Word Perfon is capable 
of two different Senfes being put upon it is 
very plain ; thus it is fometimes made Ufe 
of to denote that identical Perfonality% 
ivhereby any o?ie intelligent Agent is dijiin- 
guijloed frotn any other intelligent Agent. 
As for Example, when it is faid, Numb. v. 
6, 7. " Vv^hcn a Man or Woman fhall com- 
" mit any Sin that Men commit, to do a 
" Trefpafs againft the Lord, and that Per- 
** fon be guilty ; then they fhall confefs 
" their Sin which they have done," &c. 
In this Place, the Word Per/on is here put 
to denote the Man or Woman who was 
guilty of the Trefpafs : And can never (ig- 
nify any other Man or Woman, but the of- 
fending one only ; nor any more Perfons 


An Essay on Spirit, ijj 

than thofe that were guilty. According to 
which Senfe of the Word every fcparate 
Perfon mufl: be confidered as a feparate in- 
telligent Agent, and every feparate intelli- 
gent Agent muft be confidered as a feparate 
Perfon from every other intelligent Agent, 
and will for ever, if he exifts fo long, be 
the fame Perfon he was, whether he repents 
or not, whether he is young, or old ; or 
whether he exifts in this World, or in the 
next. And it would be a Contradi<5lion in 
Terms to fay, that this one Perfon is two 
different Perfons, or that two different Per- 
fons is this fame Perfon ; for hence it is 
that the common Expreflion takes its Rife, 
when fpcaking of any one Man, we fay, 
this is the very hidividual Perfon, who did 
fuch or fuch a Fadl, becaufe, if he could 
be divided, he would be no longer the fame 

CXXXVI. But in this Senfe of the 

Word, the Confubftanti ah/is will not allow 

the Word Perfon to be applied to the three 

Perfons in the Trinity, becaufe this would 

X 2 make 

I 5^ An Essay on Spirit. 

make them as much three feparate Beings, 
as MattheWy Mark, and Luke, are tliree 
feparate Men : And would contradict the 
Homouftan Doclrine, which fuppofes the 
three Perfons of the Trinity to be one un- 
divided Subftance, or as Cyril expredeth it, 
one Jpecijic Nature, or Kfjence. 

CXXIiVII. Sometimes however this Word 
Perjbn is made Ufe of to denote only the 
Relation which one intelligent Agent bears 
to another ; or the diftinguifhing Mark of 
his Character, whereby he is to be known 
from other intelligent Agents, or even from 
himfelf, either at different Times, or in 
different Circumftances. In which Scnfe of 
the Word the fame individual Perfon, or in- 
telligent Agent, may be confidered as twenty 
different Perfons all at the fame Time. For 
thus the fame intelligent Agent may be con- 
fidered in the Perfon of a King, of a 
General, of an Ally, of a Philofophcr, 
of a Father, or of a Son,^of an Huf- 
band, or of a Batchellor, of an old Man, 
cr of a young Man, ^c, &c. For, 

^;^ Essay (?;? Spirit. 1J7 

fays Stephens, In his Latin T'hefauruSy Per- 
fona Jignificat ^alitatem earn qua homo 
differt ab homine^ turn in anima, turn in 
corpore, turn in extra pofitis 5 quce a Rloeto- 
ricis anumerantur in Attributis Ferfonce : ut 
HeBor ad Priamum Perfona Filii e/l ; 
ad AjiyanaBem Perfona Patris ; ad An- 
dromachem Perfona Mariti ; ad Paridem 
Perfona Fratris j ad Sarpedonem Amici ; 
ad Achille7n Perfona Inimici. In which 
Senfe of the Word it is that that Ex- 
preflion mufi: be underflood, when Mo- 
fes faith of God, that he (3) regardeth not 
Perfons, by which is meant, not that God 
regardeth not Mankind, as they are fb many 
inteUigent Agents, but that he doth not 
refpe(5l Men on account of their perfonal 
Circumftances, or Charadlers, or Figure, 
or Relation in Life : But neither will the 
Confubflantialijls allow this Interpretation of 
the Word Perfon^w^% applied to the three 
Perfons in the Trinity, fo m to be under- 
ftood as if they were only three different 

(}) Deut. X. 17. Matth, XX\\, 16. Mar. xii. 14.- 


158 Jj7i Essay on Spirit. 

Perfonages, or Chara(5lers, or Attributes, 
of the fame Being ; becaufe that would be 
manifefl: Sahellianifmy and would not allow 
any real Exiftence to any of them but 

CXXXVIII. And though they fay that 
one of thefe Perfons is the Father, and the 
other S^on ; they will not allow one to be 
prior or pofterior to the other ; but declare 
them both to be coequal and coeternal, 
which is by no Means confident with the 
Relation that there is between Father and 
Son : For though the Relation between two 
coequal coeternal Beings might bear fome 
Analogy to the Denomination of Brothers, 
yet It feems abfolutely inconfiftent with that 
of Father and Son. 

CXXXIX. But, In order to condudl us 
a little further into the Knowledge of this 
Affair, it may be proper to enquire into the 
Reafbns which feem to have led the Compi- 
lers of the Nicene Creed into this Determi^ 


An Essay on Spirit, IJ9 

nation of the Confubftantiality of the Fa- 
ther and Son. 

CXL. The Do6trine of Arius was, that 
the Son being begotten of the Father before 
all I'lmes and all ^ges, fubpjled only through 
the Will of the Father : But that he was 
not eternal, that is, coeternal with the Fa- 
ther J nor did he come into Exi/ience along 
with the Father, 

CXLI. In order to refute which Doc- 
trine, the Nicene BIfliops compofed a Creed, 
w^herein they afTerted the Son to be of the 
Subjlance of the Father, and confuhjlantial 
with the Father ; and at the End of the 
Creed annexed thefe three Anathemas, or 
damnatory Claufes : {4) tous ^\ heyov'iaioliriv 
TToVe ole tiK riv, x,(x,t 7rp\v ytvvn^nvai ex riu, 5car 
oil l| &)c oviojv lyevslOf ri l^ iiepai uiroc^ciaectii 
D Qiiaiai (poca-ycovlcci etvcci, >? x,h(^6tVj m TpeTrloi/, 
if dXKoiOiilov rev uiov tb oga, dvcc'^ijjt.o^ll^ei n 
ciyicc Ka9oA(X>) xai ctTroij'oAiJOi eJocATjo^ia. 

' (4) Socrat, Eccl. Hill. lib. i. cap. 8. 


i6o An Essay on Spirit. 

But they who Jay^ Ihere was a when 
the Son was not, and that he did not exijl be- 
fore he was begotten : Or that fay ^ he was be- 
gotten out of nothing : Or that fay he exijied 
out of any other Hypostasis, or Usia, 
than the Father ; or was created, or is li- 
able to Mutation or Change, the Holy Catho" 
lick Apoflolic Church anatkematifes, 

CXLII. From whence it may be obfer- 
ved in the firft Place, that thefe Fathers un- 
derftood the Words Ufa and Hypoftafis in 
the fame Senfe, fo as to mean one and the 
fame thing ; and that as the Son was of the 
fame undivided, or individual Vfia, fo was 
he alfo the fame undivided or individual 
Hypoflafs with the Father. And pofFibly 
this may be the Reafon why thefe Ana- 
themas are omitted out of our prefent Ni- 
cene Creed ; becaufe they contradidl in 
Terms the Athanafan Creed, which aflerts, 
that ** there is one Hypofla/is of the Father, 
*' and another of the Son, and another of 
*' the holy Spirit." 


An Essay 07t Spirit. i6i 

CXLIII. But it does not feem fo eafy to 
explain what is meant by the firft Anathema : 
Curfed be they who fay^ Inhere was a Time 
ivhen the Son was not ; and that he did not 
exiji before he was begotten. However, if 
it means any thing, it mufl: be this ; that 
whereas the Arians afTerted that the Son 
was begotten before all Time, and before 
all Ages ; Neverthelefs they aflertcd, that 
although they would allow he might, upon 
that Account, in fome Senfe be called eter- 
nal ; yet that the Son could not be cocternal 
with the Father, becaufe the Begetter muft 
have exilled before the Begotten. In order 
therefore to invalidate the Force of this Ar- 
gument, and make the Son neverthelefs co- 
eternal with the Father, the Nicene Bi- 
(hops, fmce they could not deny but the Be- 
getter mufl: have exifted before the Begot- 
ten, feemed to have framed this Anathema, 
wherein they alTert, in Imitation of Ire- 
ticeus, and fome few other metaphyseal 
Writers, that the Son did exifl: before he 
wa5 begotten : That is, that he did poten- 

Y tially 

i6i j^n Essay on Spirit. 

tially exift In the Subflance of the Father, out 
of v.'hich he was afterwards begotten. 

CXLIV. And this is the Reafon why 
they- likewlfe anathematifed, in the fecond 
Place, thofc who fhould fay, that the Son 
was begotten out of Nothing, In order to 
eftablifh the foliowins Dodtrlne of the Son 
being begotten out of the Subftance of the 
Father ; which Subftance being undoubt- 
edly coeternal with the Father, therefore 
the Son, who virtually (5) or potentially 
exifted in it, muft, according to their Me- 
thod of reafoning, alfo be coeternal. 

CXLV. But, with humble Submiilion to 
fuch great Authority, this AfTertion abfo- 
lutely deilroys the modern favourite Doc- 
trine of the eternal Generation of the Son ; 
Becaufe that although it fhould be allowed 
that the Son might pofTibly have virtually 
fubfiired from all Eternity, in the Subftance, 

(0 AfvafAffi r,v VI ru •jreCp aymv'olui;. Potcntia. ernt in Par 
iic^ iiigmta quadam i-atione. Theod. Ecclef. Hift. lib. i. 
cap. \%. ....:•,.. 


An EssAV on SfikiT. 163 

or Mind, of the Father, as every thing 
did, that either hath exifted, or ever will 
exift, yet I fuppofe it a Contradidtion in 
Terms to fay, that he exifted, as a Son, till he 
was begotten. And therefore that the A//- 
cene Fathers have anathematlfed all fuch as 
will not affirm a (6) Contradidlion. 

CXLVL And I cannot help faying, It 
is fomething odd to have thefe two Creeds 
eftablifhed in the fame Church, in one of 
which thofe are declared to be accurfedy 
who deny the Son to be of the fame Up.a, 
or Hypojiafis with the Father ; and In the 
other, it is declared they cannot be failed 
who do not aflfert that (7) there is one Hy- 
pojiafis of the Father, and another of the 
Son, and another of the Holy GhofL 

CXLVn. But, in order to obviate all 
thefe Obje(Stions, It is thought fufficient, by 

(6) For the Aflertions of the Arinns were ?» vQa, ole I wo? 
»K flr. {iff. That there ivar (a Time; ivi>en the Son tvits 
mt. ^c. Athan. Vol. I. p. 97. -' 

(7) Athanajian Creed. 

' - ■ Y 2 fome, 

1^4 -^^^ Essay on Spirit. 

fome, to fay, that there are many Powers 
in the Divine Nature, which human Beings 
are not capable of comprehending. Nay, 
fo far are we Mortals from being able 
to comprehend the Divine Nature, that we 
know very little of the Things which are 
on Earth ; that there is not one, of all 
the various Things which furround us, that 
does not contain fomething in its Frame 
and Conftitution, which is beyond the Abi- 
lities of the moll: fubtle Philofopher to ex- 

CXLVIII. Be it fo. — Let us then ac- 
knowledge the narrow Limits of the hu- 
man Underftanding ; which, I think, no- 
body, who looks within himfelf, can be 
without fenfibly feeing and feeling : But 
then let us not turn fuch violent Sceptics, as 
to aflert that, becaufe we do not know every 
Thing, therefore we know nothing : That 
becaufe we cannot fee by Night as well as 
by Day, therefore we muft not believe our 
own Eyes, even when the Sun fhines di- 
rectly over our Heads. 


An Essay on Spirit, itf j 

CXLIX. I fliall therefore take it for 
granted, that there are fome Truths in Na- 
ture, that are level to our Underftandings, 
and that we may pronounce with fome De- 
gree of Certainty, for Example, that two and 
two make four ; and that it is a Contradic- 
tion in Terms to fay, that the fame indivi- 
dual Subftance, whether fpiritual, or corpo- 
real, can be, and not be, at the fame Time, 
and in the fame Place. Now, if the Know- 
ledge of thefe Propofitions is within the 
Reach of our Underftanding, then we may 
fafely affirm, if the Father and Son are 
confiibftantiaU that is, if the Subftancc of 
the Father be the fame undivided Subllance 
with the Son ; and that the Subftance of 
the Son did enter into the Womb of the 
Virgin Mary, and became incarnate ; that 
then it will follow, of Confequence, that the 
Subftance of the Father did enter into the 
Virgin's Womb, and was incarnate alfo. 
Since otherwife, one and the fame indivi- 
dual Subftance may be, and not be, at the 
fame Time, and in the fame Place. 

CL. Again, 

1 66 A7t Essay on Spirit. 

CL. Again, if tliis Propofition be taken 
for granted, which may be found totidem 
Verbis, in the Athanafian Creed, that as 
the reafonable Soul and Flejh is one Man j 
fo God and Man is one Chrifi:. And if this 
other Propofition be allowed, which may be 
found as expHcitly in the Scriptures, that this 
one (8) Chriji Juffered for the Sins of Man- 
kind ; then it muft follow, of Confequence, 
that Chrifi fufFered in his Godhead, as well 
as his Humanity ; fmce otherwife, it would 
have been the Man "J ejus, and not Jefus 
the Mejjiahy or ChriJl, that fuifered for the 
Sins of Men. 

CLI. Now as the Confideration of thefe 
Things is, fo far at leafl, within the Reach 
of our Capacities, if we fuppofe the Pre- 
mifes aforementioned to be true, which the 
Confuhftantialijls will hardly deny ; the Con- 
clufions, which they will not allow, are, 

(8) Beh.'ix. 28. 1 Vet. ii. 21. iii. 18. 


^n Essay on Spirit. 167 

neverthelefs, as demonilrably true, as any 
Propofition in the Mathematics. 

CLII. But let us go a little flirther, and 
fuppofe, for the prefent, that thefe Things 
were above our Comprehenfion ; and then 
I fhould be glad to be informed of the Rea- 
fons why thofe very Perfons, who roar fb 
loud againfl the vain Attempts of Men, in 
fcrutinizing the Things which belong imto 
Heaven, Ihould take upon them to explain 
thofe Doctrines, which they themfelves de- 
clare to be above the Reach of human Un- 

CLIII. When the Papifis want to per- 
fuade Men out of their Senfes, and to pre- 
vail upon Prote/lants to acknowledge the 
abfurd Doctrine of Tranfubftantiationf they 
are very ample and florid in their Deck, 
mations upon the Immenfity, and Incom- 
prehenfiblenefs of God, and his Attributes ; 
and upon the Minutenefs and Infufficicncy 
of human Abilicies ; and are always fetting 
fgrth, in the flrongeft Terms, how little 


i68 An Essay on Spirit. 

\ft know, and how much we are ignorant. 
And therefore, fay they, fince our Saviour 
hath faid, this is my Body, and this is my 
Bloody we ought to believe it to be fo, 
though we could not comprehend the Man- 
ner how. 

CLIV. All which would be undoubtedly 
right, and true, if they were to go no fur- 
ther. But if what they fay be true, about 
the Weaknefs of human Underftandings, 
how come they to have Abilities for explai- 
ning thofe Myfteries, which the reft of 
Mankind are fo unequal to the Enquiry in- 
to ? Why do they pretend to fay, that this 
Myftery confifts in a 'Jranfubjiaiitiatton of 
the Elements, when there is no fuch Word 
in the Scriptures ? 

CLV. And fince it muft be undoubtedly 
acknowledged, that the Belief in any Myf- 
tery can be no further required as neceffary 
to Salvation, than in Proportion as that 
Myftery is revealed ; if this be a Myftery, 
furely they ought to leave it, as they found 


^ ^;^ Essay on Spirit. 169 

It, and not prefume to explain that, which 
they declare to be inexplicable. 

CLVI. And is not this Method of rea- 
foning as ftrong, with regard to Conjubftan- 
tiation as ^ranfubjiantiation ? It certainly 
is. And therefore when the Troteftants 
argue againft the Dodlrine of ^ranfubjlan- 
tiation^ the Fapijis never fail objedling the 
equal Incredibility of a conftibjiantial Tri- 

' \ CLVn. The Do(5lrine of the Trinity 
IS as certainly revealed in the 1 9th Verfe of 
the xxviiith Chapter of St. Matthew^ as 
the Dodtrine of the Euchariji is, in the 
26th Verfe of the xxvith Chapter of the 
fame Evangelift : But the Scriptures are as 
filent about the Confubjlantiality of the one, 
as about the T!ranfubflantiatio7i of the other. 
Whence then came the Revelation of thefe 
wonderful Do<5lrines ? Why ! both originally 
from the fame Oracle ; from the Papal 

Chair. ' 



I/O j^n Essay on Spirit. 

CLVIII. I think it therefore incumbent 
on thofe Profejiant Bifhops, who hold the 
Doctrine of a confubflantial Trinity, to in- 
form us of the Rcafons, why the Infallibi- 
lity of the Pope mufl be acknowledged in 
one of thefe Inftanccs, and not in the other. 
And why, if their Eyes are fufficient to let 
them fee, as well as the Pope, that the 
three Perfons of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit, are one coeternal, coequal, and 
undivided Subftance, when we undertake to 
argue againft it, they fhould fay to us. Ye 
are blind ! ye arc blind ! Or, why if we 
are blind, though they are not, this meta- 
phyficai Difpute (hould be made a Part of 
the public Service of the Church, which is 
an AiTembly compofed, not only of quick- 
fighted Philofophers, but of the lowefl of 
the People, who arc required there to give 
their Affent to thefe equivocal, if not con- 
tradidlory, Interpretations of Scripture, un- 
der the Penalty of eternal Damnation ; and 
to declare that every one who doth not keep 
this Faith whole and undefiledy without 


An Essay on Spirit. 171 

Doubty Jhall peri(h everlaftingly ; and that 
this is the catholic Faith, which, except a 
Man believe faithfully, he cannot be faved. 

CLEX. I fhall accordingly expedt fome 
of the Right Reverend Members of the 
Protejiant Church of Ireland, either to ac- 
count for this, or to exonerate their Con- 
fciences, by joining in an humble Remon- 
ftrance againft it : And I do promife, if any 
of them fliall deign to honour this Treatife 
with an Anfwer, that, if it pleafeth God 
to fpare my Life, it fhall fpeedily be follow- 
ed, either by a Recantation, or a Reply,